Archive for the ‘archive’ Category

6th Issue – March 2019

Sunday, March 10th, 2019

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Full volume of The Journal of Languages for Specific Purposes (JLSP) – 6th Issue – March 2019

Title: ANALYZING THE SIGNIFICANT CONTROVERSIAL FEATURES WITHIN ENGLISH FOR LEGAL PURPOSES (ELP)

Author(s): Ali Siddiqui

Abstract:  The present paper will try to analyze some crucial features that can highlight the differences between English for legal purposes (ELP) and General English (GE). It focuses on use of (ELP) as a medium of instruction within practical field of Law. The study will deal with a fact that lawyers are the most eloquent users of English language. Where, on the other hand, they are its notorious abusers. It is because they employ arcane vocabulary within their discourses. The most controversial features that underlie within this field were to be analyzed from different perspectives: (1) its practicability to legal language’s nature (2) semantic interpretations of legal interpretations and (3) perceptual differences over statues of applied and real cases. A language policy program was conducted for this purpose in SM (Sind Muslim) Law College, (Hyderabad) Sind, Pakistan. Its goal was to analyze the particular needs of the legal learners towards their use of English language. After having the discussions with stakeholders, learners, experienced interlocutors and advocates themselves, the researcher, then analyzed some of the case methods (legal books). It was considered a necessary concern to have particular model that should design a conclusive course of integrating the language learning with legal content. This study falls with three major categories in the end for future scholars. (1) Study of Specific English language within legal field. (2) Study of spoken English language within legal settings and (3) Study of written English language of law. However, the main attempt is to explore the third category, focusing on controversial features within written form of legal English language. This study will also help future ESP course designers to visualize the underlying facts that are important in present era. It will not only improve the learning purposes but to strategies for teaching methods. Therefore, it is important to analyze the controversial facts of ELP course.

Keywords: writing email messages, professional business communication, computer mediated communication, audience awareness

Pagination: 7-13

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Title: ASSESSING THE IMPACT OF CONTENT-BASED INSTRUCTION ON LEARNING EFL IN AN ESP CLASS

Author(s): Moundir Al Amrani

Abstract: English for Specific Purposes (ESP) is the field of language teaching and learning of English in a specific area of specialty. However, learning ESP is not to be understood as just learning a set of technical vocabulary and expressions; it is about learning to use English in a given specific context with the implication of all the skills and objectives of language learning. This qualitative research investigates the impact of Content-Based Instruction (CBI) on developing comprehension and vocabulary in a course of English for Specific Purposes at an engineering school in Morocco where English is learnt as a Foreign Language (FL). A total number of 40 students were divided into two groups of 20 students per class and were taught a fifteen-hour course of legal English over a period of six weeks. Each class lasted one hour and fifteen minutes, at the pace of two classes per week. Focus was on reading comprehension and learning vocabulary in an interactive way by engaging the learners actively. At the beginning, both groups were given the same pre-test to determine their present knowledge of legal English. After the experiment period, another post-test was administered to the students to determine their level of progress. At first, the results of both groups in each test were compared with each other. Then, the results of each group in the pre-test were compared with the results of the same group in the post-test. The general result is that both groups have made progress in improving comprehension and vocabulary capabilities in legal English. As for same-group results, the experiment group have managed to make significant progress in their post-test results compared to their pre-test results, while the control group maintained their higher score shown in the pre-test. The conclusion drawn from this is that Content-Based Instruction does help students improve their comprehension and vocabulary capabilities in ESP. Therefore, focus on content does yield positive results in learning language. Reducing content to just a topic through which learners learn language may cause the learners to miss a learning opportunity. Thus, there may not be a reason to give the content aspect of a language course less importance than the language aspect.

Keywords: Content-Based Instruction; English for Specific Purposes; English as a Foreign Language; CLIL; Comprehension, Vocabulary

Pagination: 15-30

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Title: TEACHING SIGN LANGUAGE FOR HEALTHCARE WITHIN A LANGUAGES FOR SPECIFIC PURPOSES FRAMEWORK

Author(s): Keren Cumberbatch

Abstract: Languages for specific purposes is a subdiscipline of applied linguistics that looks at language learning and teaching for a specific education or training need. The long-established norm of this field is the teaching and learning of spoken languages. Sign languages have been excluded. This paper calls attention to this gap in the field and shows how a sign language can be taught and learnt for a specific purpose. This empirical work describes how students training to be healthcare practitioners are taught Jamaican Sign Language with a view to improving communication with Deaf patients when these students become healthcare practitioners. Overviews of course content as well as teaching and assessment methods are examined in light of the tenets of the field of languages for specific purposes. This is to assess how the content as well as teaching and assessment methods compare to current practice in the field of languages for specific purposes. Benefits of this programme are also presented. It is hoped that this paper sparks a much-needed discussion in the field of languages for specific purposes on the inclusion of sign languages and what best practice would look like in a subdiscipline of sign languages for specific purposes. Globally, the number of sign language courses offered at higher education institutions is increasing. It is a logical conclusion that more institutions will begin to offer sign language courses tailored for specific settings. The demand for such courses is just beginning. The need therefore to address the question of the place of sign languages for specific purposes within the field of languages for specific purposes is urgent.

Keywords: sign language; healthcare; languages for specific purposes; communicative competence; higher education; Jamaica.

Pagination: 31-40

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Title: WITH OR WITHOUT YOU: THE USE OF DIGITAL TOOLS IN TEACHING LANGUAGES FOR SPECIFIC PURPOSES

Author(s): Timea Németh, Alexandra Csongor

Abstract: Several factors have affected higher education during the last few decades across the globe, as a consequence of which, teachers nowadays are facing unprecedented changes and challenges of the 21st century. Due to fast developments in technology, digital competences are of major importance today for both students and teachers. Many language teachers as well as teachers of languages for specific purposes are therefore constantly faced with the question of shall we or shall we not let digital technology into our teaching activity. There are pros and cons to integrating online Web2 technology into the curriculum, just as there to teaching with the traditional methods of offline materials, books and exercise books. Both options have their own advantages and disadvantages, however, the number of those, who focus more on how we should use digital technology in class, instead of whether we should use it at all, is on the rise. Digital tools can be used to our advantage when teaching, nevertheless, this is not an easy task as new digital resources and various apps reach us almost on a daily basis. Which one to select and implement in class that suits the students’ needs and provides authentic materials for classes of languages for specific purposes, which at the same time, will not quickly seem outdated or disappear, is a constant challenge we have to face. The aim of this paper is to investigate the notion of digital education, including digital classrooms, digital students and digital teachers as well as the teaching methods of the 21st century pertaining to language classes, especially focusing on language classes for specific purposes. In authors’ understanding, digital tools can be used as a potential source of stimulation from which to launch into interactive communication keeping a healthy balance between the sensory and the digital resources. Numerous educational digital tools emerge every day, which require special skills, knowledge and competence, therefore teaching with or without them cannot and should not be imposed on language teachers, instead, this decision should lie exclusively in their hands.

Keywords: 21st century education; digital tools in language classes; languages for specific purposes; digital classroom; digital teacher; digital students

Pagination: 41-49

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Title: ISSUES OF SPEECH FLUENCY AND THE USAGE OF COMMUNICATION STRATEGIES BY HUNGARIAN TEACHERS AND STUDENTS

Author(s): László Kárpáti

Abstract: The international demand of having speakers who are fluent in a multitude of languages is a significant one. The term ‘fluent’, by default, means that the speaker can continue a conversation (or their speech) without any possible hesitation or with only marginal ones. However, this is often not the case, as it can be seen both in everyday conversations with foreigners or delivering a speech at an international conference. Many non-native speakers of a language are facing difficulties when in a verbally challenging situation and as a result, come across the phenomena of a ‘communication breakdown’ or an episode of TOT (tip of the tongue). These two phenomena can be rather embarrassing for the speaker, resulting in a weakened self-esteem and may lead to the start of a negative spiral; a spiral that, in extreme cases, makes the speaker avoid communicating with foreigners all together. To help non-native speakers avoid such unpleasant situations, the usage of communication strategies should be carefully considered. In the following paper, the results of an online questionnaire will be presented, regarding the usage of communication strategies by Hungarian students and teachers of a secondary and tertiary level of education. The aim of the research was to shed light on the usage of communication strategies in modern offline conversations occurring between native speakers of a language and non-native speakers of the same language within Hungary. Some of the arguments presented in this paper are concerned with the most frequently used communication strategies used by Hungarians on such occasions; the research findings here seem to contradict that of common experience. Regarding taking the initiative if facing a foreigner in a conversation Hungarian speakers again seem to present a contradiction to popular belief. Furthermore, the notion of communication strategies and their likely conscious use is also dissected only to present some expected end results. In addition, the paper examines the possibility of teaching communication strategies in a school environment, while also considering the likely hindering factors and obstacles that could prevent students from acquiring above said strategies. It is worth noting, that teachers of a foreign language might want to pay attention to the question of teachability when it comes to communication strategies, both inside and outside the language classroom for the sake of a more effective future of language education. For this purpose, a section about this issue is also presented in this paper.

Keywords: speech fluency; communication issues; communication strategies; language education, interlanguage

Pagination: 51-67

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Title: COMPARISON OF JAPANESE LANGUAGE ASSESSMENT CRITERIA OF A STEM AND A NON-STEM UNIVERSITY IN THE UK

Author(s): Junko Winch

Abstract: This study compares a STEM and a non-STEM British university’s Japanese marking criteria using two cultural concepts as a framework. There are movements in language teaching to focus on teaching specific purposes. The findings show that the two types of assessment criteria, simple and detailed assessment criteria exist, which were under the influence of these two cultural concepts. Language teachers who use simple assessment criteria grade students’ work more objectively using quantitative method, whereas those who use detailed assessment criteria grade more subjectively. Language teachers who use detailed assessment criteria may have less workload marking and grading than those who use simple assessment. However, the grading quality of those who use detailed assessment criteria may not be as consistent as that of those who use simple assessment. In addition, the emphasis on either creativity or accuracy is related to simple or detailed assessment criteria. It is recommended to incorporate some aspects of simple assessment criteria to improve the consistency of the grading if an institution uses detailed assessment. If an institution uses simple assessment criteria, it is recommended to incorporate the clarity aspect of detailed assessment criteria.

Keywords: Culture; detailed assessment criteria; higher education; Japanese language teaching; simple assessment criteria

Pagination: 69-81

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Title: STAFF SUPPORT FOR INTERNATIONALIZATION– A CASE OF LANGUAGE AND CONTENT TEACHERS COLLABORATION

Author(s): Sonia-Carmen Munteanu

Abstract: In the context of growing efforts for becoming more international and, hence, more attractive for staff and students worldwide, higher education institutions implement and support English Medium Instruction (EMI) and try to enhance visibility of research results through publishing in English. The resources necessary for this successful enterprise include a teaching and research staff highly proficient in using English both for teaching subjects other than English and writing materials based on research. The general context of EMI can be further complicated by local factors which add to the complex puzzle of forces that shape higher education today. The present paper describes and analyzes the case of a Romanian higher education institution which, although offering English taught programs for over a decade in several engineering fields, has only recently decided to reconsider the needs of the EMI teaching and research staff and to provide ongoing support, with the view of increasing quality of EMI education and also of adding new programs taught in English. The recent support program consists of three components: language courses focused on speaking and listening skills and on grammar-discourse features of written texts, pedagogy-focused workshops and a one-to-one tutoring support for editing and improving the accuracy and readability of research-related texts to be published in English. The components were implemented as an integrated system which has fostered collaboration between language and content teachers involved in EMI. Informing each other in both practice and research, EMI and TESOL (here represented mostly by English for Specific Purposes) form a productive symbiosis when all stakeholders are involved. The implications of such cases can be consequential for the further development of support programs for EMI teaching and research staff, based on specific needs of local EMI communities of practice and on principles derived from the language and content teachers’ collaboration.

Keywords: English Medium Instruction, internationalization, ELT/ESP, higher education, language support

Pagination: 83-90

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Title: COMMUNICATION SKILLS WHICH INCREASE STUDENTS’ EMPLOYABILITY: ARE WE TEACHING THE SKILLS THEY NEED?

Author(s): Marijana Marjanovikj-Apostolovski

Abstract: Communication skills are among the top generic (soft) skills required by employers today worldwide. The major question this paper strives to answer is: what are the real work related communication skills that university students need to develop? It also focuses on determining the extent to which these needs match the objectives listed in the ESP for Business courses syllabi offered at the Language Centre (LC) at the South East European University (SEEU) in the R. Macedonia. At present at the LC at SEEU the same syllabi and the same teaching materials are used for teaching Business English to full-time undergraduate students with no previous working experience and to part-time undergraduate students, majority of whom are employed and have previous working experience. Currently, most emphasis in these courses is placed on developing speaking as a skill at the expense of slightly neglecting the development of business writing as a skill. This paper summarizes and reports on the findings from a small scale field research surveying the work-related communication needs of 20 employed undergraduate part-time students attending basic skills English courses at the LC at the SEEU as preparation for subsequent ESP for Business courses. An anonymous questionnaire was used as the main data collection instrument. The survey revealed that interpersonal oral communication was ranked as number one priority by the participants. This practical research paper rooted in the author’s daily teaching practise should be of interest to ESP for Business teachers constantly revising and improving the syllabi striving to create an ESP for Business course tailored to their students’ real needs.

Keywords: ESP for Business; communication skills; soft skills; SEEU; employability

Pagination: 91-99

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Title: FORGING BONDS BETWEEN ACADEMIC WRITING RESEARCH RESULTS AND TEACHING MATERIALS

Author(s): Tharwat M. El-Sakran

Abstract: The last four decades have witnessed the birth of numerous studies dealing with the research paper (RP), its rhetorical structure and contents, linguistic features, reporting verbs, review procedures, evaluative language, peer editing, transfer of academic writing skills, and many other features. In spite of the countless researches detailing academic writing features, not a small amount of textbooks on academic writing seem to ignore the results yielded by research conducted on this vital and crucial skill. A great number of academic writing textbooks seem to be unaware of the findings of research on academic writing practices. Thus, it is the purpose of this paper to briefly survey a number of academic writing textbooks claiming to be designed for teaching and developing university students’ academic writing skills and introduce the present author’s attempt in utilizing Swales’ IMRD and CARS patterns in teaching the overall rhetorical structure of academic research papers to tertiary students. The current author strongly believes that academic writing is an apprenticeship process. That is, the students should be shown samples of what they are expected to produce before they actually do it. Therefore, students were, individually, requested to find a journal RP, of 15 pages maximum, in the area they would choose for their research from any peer reviewed journal that uses APA style, print it, highlight only all the section headings, copy them on a separate sheet of paper and bring to the following class.  In the second class session, students were divided into teams of 4, and were asked to share and discuss the research design patterns they identified. Then, they selected a representative team member to write the sections and subsections headings they found common in the research design on the whiteboard for all students to see. After this, a whole class discussion of the similarities and differences began. Then, Swales’ models were introduced for comparison with what they found. Using Swales’ models made it easy for students to think in an organized way and assign the information that they had gathered to their relevant sections/move(s).The students’ feedback was encouraging and the research papers they produced corroborated their positive responses.

Keywords: Features of academic writing; research paper schema; rhetorical structure of research papers; tertiary level writing; transfer of writing skills; academic research papers

Pagination: 101-113

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Title: TEACHING FOREIGN LANGUAGES AT THE HELLENIC ARMY MILITARY ACADEMY. THE PRESENT AND THE FUTURE

Author(s): Elizabeth Hatziolou,  Stamatia Sofiou

Abstract: During the process of internationalization, interpersonal communication has been transformed into intercultural communication involving people from different cultural systems that communicate effortlessly with each other. The present study focuses on the inductive methodology that is followed at the Hellenic Army Military Academy in order to help cadets to acquire communicative skills while absorbing the knowledge of English or French language, literature, and culture. The inductive methodology gives shape to an innovative teaching approach as English and French become languages of special purposes, taking into consideration the needs and requirements of the contemporary international environment. The Hellenic Army Military Academy provides a multidimensional and of high quality, military academic training that lasts four years. Teaching foreign languages, particularly English and French meets the prospects and commitments of the Hellenic Army Military Academy and the Hellenic Ministry of Defence. Because teaching English and French and Military Terminology is accomplished simultaneously in hellenophone and allophone speaking cadets during the first two years of their academic program. Given the heterogeneous cultural and linguistic contexts, lectures are oriented towards participatory learning so that all cadets are activated to the educational process. The subjects of English and French Military Terminology and War Literature are taught during the third and fourth years at the Hellenic Army Military Academy in order to aid cadets in acquiring the necessary reading, writing, listening and oral skills that will enable them to attend the Annual Spring Program of Military Erasmus as well as the academic programs of the Anglo-Saxon universities they will go to after graduation. Authentic English and French texts and historical, political and fictional texts have been selected concerning the organization of the army, the art and act of conducting war as well as the experiences of American, English and French war veterans. By the time cadets graduate, with the help of their lecturers who assist them in the difficult task of providing them with vocabulary activities, oral, writing and listening exercises, they can speak two European languages and know the military terms, phrases and idioms that are usually found in military texts in order to use them when communicating with their colleagues abroad.

Keywords: curriculum, foreign languages for specific purposes, educational approach, inductive methodology, multidimensional academic training, interpersonal and intercultural communication

Pagination: 115-125

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Title: THE EFFECT OF CONTEXT IN EAP WRITING: A COMPARATIVE ANALYSIS OF ORGANIZATION IN DOCTORAL DISSERTATION ABSTRACTS

Author(s): Serhat Inan

Abstract: In EAP (English for Academic Purposes) writing pieces such as articles, theses, and dissertations; convincing the reader to read the rest of the written material is of high importance. The literature presents several models to follow while writing abstracts. Based on this, the current study investigated the textual, organizational and rhetorical structures of the Ph.D. dissertation abstracts written in the Turkish and American contexts. The structures of abstracts were analyzed based on Hyland’s (2000) model for writing abstracts. Additionally, the author presence markers and hedging devices used in the abstracts were investigated. A comparative analysis of EAP writing examples from the two contexts -Turkish and American- revealed that there exist observable differences in terms of abstract writing especially in the organizational structures and the use of hedging devices. The results of the study suggested that in both contexts there is a need to reconsider academic writing education. To be clearer writing abstracts should be handled more carefully by the professors of academic writing instruction.

Keywords: EAP; Organization of Abstracts; Move Structure; Author Presence; Voice; Hedging

Pagination: 127-138

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Title: TEACHING BUSINESS ENGLISH CORRESPONDENCE – THEN AND NOW

Author(s): Monica-Ariana Sim, Anamaria-Mirabela Pop

Abstract: Are letters still important? Are business letters as the classic means of communication needed and important to be taught during language classes these days? Or should the new and modern means of communication prevail over the classic written pieces of paper? This article discusses the findings and implications of an investigation meant to answer these questions about the role of business correspondence in English (i.e. email, letters, memos, faxes) and this is done as a case study addressed to the local door market. The results are based on four sources: 1. a questionnaire that had two versions: an online survey sent by email to 150 alumni of The Faculty of Economics, University of Oradea and to 8 companies and professional associations, and a paper-based  version distributed to 80 professionals, who included students undertaking undergraduate and postgraduate programmes; 2. semi-structured interviews with 8 professionals, 3. analyses of 25 email chains comprising 190 separate messages, and a “week-in-the-life” case study. All these cover half a year span of investigation. This research comes with relevant information about the role of email versus letters, memos and faxes in the globalised workplace, the purposes and characteristics of these text types, and the challenges that Romanian professionals experience when writing business correspondence in a second language. The article argues that the irrelevance of the traditional approach of business English courses (letters, memos, faxes) when it comes to the needs of modern-day professionals and need for email and netiquette focus as the core of updated instruction.

Keywords: business correspondence; Business English; syllabus; letters, email

Pagination: 139-146

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Title: SPEZIFIZITÄT VS. DIFFUSITÄT IN DER RUMÄNISCHEN UND IN DER DEUTSCHEN WERBUNG / THE DIMENSION SPECIFIC VS. DIFFUSE IN ROMANIAN AND GERMAN ADVERTISING

Author(s): Patrick Lavrits

Abstract: The dimension specific vs. diffuse means that in specific cultures the areas of life are clearly separated and encounters with other people are also considered in these categories. If you deal with a person in different areas of life, you behave according to the situation. The opposite is represented by diffuse cultures, where the areas of life are mixed together and the access from the public sphere to the private sphere is easier. In relationships, one behaves indirectly, seemingly aimlessly. One is often evasive and ambiguous. Specific vs. diffuse can also be recognized in the way the advertisement is carried out, the interactions between people and the type of persons represented, as well as the way in which the message is conveyed and how it influences and reaches the target group in the different cultures.

Keywords: interculturality; intercultural perception; cultural dimensions; specific vs. diffuse; advertising

Pagination: 147-155

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Title: NEUTRALITÄT VS. EMOTIONALITÄT IN DER RUMÄNISCHEN UND IN DER DEUTSCHEN WERBUNG / THE DIMENSION NEUTRAL VS. EMOTIONAL IN ROMANIAN AND GERMAN ADVERTISING

Author(s): Patrick Lavrits

Abstract: Fons Trompenaars describes with the dimension neutral vs. emotional how far it is possible to express emotions in public in different cultures. Emotionality includes not only outbursts of emotion, but also everyday appearances such as smiling, gesturing, i.e. also non-verbal forms of communication. In neutral cultures, the emerging feelings are controlled and rather kept to themselves. In discussions it is mainly argued on the factual level. There is a low-context verbal communication. Neutral vs. emotional can also be recognized in the execution of advertisement, the interactions between the characters and the type of persons represented, as well as in the way the message is conveyed and how the target group is influenced and reached in the different cultures.

Keywords: interculturality; intercultural perception; cultural dimensions; neutral vs. emotional; advertising

Pagination: 157-165

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Title: AUF DIE PERSÖNLICHKEIT DES LEHRERS KOMMT ALLES AN – FORSCHUNGSBERICHT ZUM PROFIL EINES „GUTEN” FREMDSPRACHENLEHRERS IN ALLEN SCHULTYPEN IN POLEN / IT ALL DEPENDS ON THE TEACHER’S PERSONALITY – PROFILE OF A ‘GOOD’ FOREIGN LANGUAGE TEACHER IN ALL TYPES OF SCHOOLS IN POLAND – RESEARCH REPORT

Author(s): Krystyna Mihułka, Joanna Chojnacka-Gärtner

Abstract: Since the 1960s, there has been increasing interest in the teacher’s professional qualifications in didactics, leading in some ways to the ‘dehumanization’ of the teacher. And yet it is the teacher’s personality that often determines his/her educational and didactic influence on the students. The aim of this article is to present a portrait of the so-called good foreign language teacher, which has been created on the basis of the comments made by about 840 Polish students of modern languages, and pupils representing various types of schools (from primary schools, through middle and secondary schools, to colleges and universities) in two voivodeships of Poland, namely Podkarpackie Voivodeship and Wielkopolska Voivodeship. In this picture, teacher personality traits, the majority of which are regarded as values not only in professional life (e.g. in the teaching profession), but also in personal life, have ranked the highest. Personality traits have overshadowed the other two groups of qualities, which foreign language teachers are also equipped with, i.e. didactic and glottodidactic ones. On the basis of the results of our research, it can be stated that the respondents (regardless of the educational stage) are inclined to perceive the (foreign language) teacher mostly as a good man, and not as a programmed robot, possessing a wide range of skills and competences. The respondents’ beliefs are, therefore, closer to the psychologists’ and pedagogues’ beliefs from the first half of the twentieth century than to contemporary concepts, in which a ‘good teacher’ is characterized as possessing only an appropriate, specialized education.

Keywords: teacher education, teacher personality, ‘good’ teacher, personality traits, didactic characteristics, glottodidactic characteristics

Pagination: 167-176

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Title: DIE EMOTIONAL-WERTENDE LEXIK UND DIE „GEWALTLEXEME” IM DEUTSCHEN / THE EMOTIONALLY-EVALUATIVE LEXIC AND THE ‘LEXEMES THAT EXPRESS VIOLENCE’ IN GERMAN LANGUAGE

Author(s): Biljana Ivanovska, Gezim Xhaferri

Abstract: We understand language as the most important means of communication that is particularly aimed to express various opinions and behaviors, not only in peace but also in times of war or in times of threat, as escalations of a conflict, and as a continuation of politics by other means. The emotionally-evaluative lexic of contemporary German language is rich and diverse in its lexical and semantic structure. In this article, we make an attempt to examine and analyze the “lexems of violence” in the emotionally evaluative lexicon. Characteristics of this type of lexicon are nouns that express violence, namely so called Mordlexeme (Massenmord, /mass murder/ Völkermord /genocide/); Blutlexeme (Bluttat, Blutbad /bloodbath, slaughter/); Drucklexeme (Druck /pressure/, Drohungen /threats/); Mafialexeme (Politmafia /politmafia/, Mafiosi /mafioso/); then Gewaltadjektive (brutal, gewaltig, grausam, verheerend /brutal, violent, cruel, devastating, catastrophic); Gewaltverben (terrorisieren, foltern, massakrieren, zuführen / (terrorizing, torturing, massacring, missconduct) etc. Furthermore, we give some examples that are derived from nouns and are mainly used in texts of the press and journalism; Flüchtling- (Flüchtlingselend /misery of the refugees/, Flüchtlingstragödie /tragedy of the refuges/), etc. We examine the “Gewaltlexeme” because they have an outstanding position in public discourse.

Keywords: emotion; emotionally evaluative lexicon; lexemes of violence; “Mordlexeme”

Pagination: 177-191

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Title: EIN PLÄDOYER FÜR DIE REHABILITIERUNG UND RETABLIERUNG DER ÜBERSETZUNG IM DAF-UNTERRICHT / A PLEA FOR THE RESTORATION OF TRANSLATION IN THE TEACHING OF GERMAN AS A FOREIGN LANGUAGE

Author(s): Erzsébet Drahota-Szabó

Abstract: Foreign languages in general are taught through the communicative method. The grammar-translation method is considered obsolete today, and that is why translation tasks in foreign language teaching (in Hungary) are used only in secret, if at all. However, with this we neglect the development of certain skills, and make the development of subordinate bilingualism into coordinate bilingualism more difficult. Based on language teaching methodology, results on the mental lexicon and empirical research results, this paper argues for restoring translation in teaching German as a Foreign Langue to the place that it duly deserves.

Keywords: mediation competences; translation; language awareness; mental lexicon; subordinate bilingualism; coordinate bilingualism

Pagination: 193-207

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Title: MELINDA DOOLY / ROBERT O’DOWD (EDITORS) IN THIS TOGETHER: TEACHERS’ EXPERIENCES WITH TRANSNATIONAL, TELECOLLABORATIVE LANGUAGE LEARNING PROJECTS

Author(s): Andrea Hamburg

Abstract: Book Review.

Pagination: 209-214

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5th Issue – March 2018

Monday, March 19th, 2018

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Full volume of The Journal of Languages for Specific Purposes (JLSP) – 5th Issue – March 2018

Title: THE TASK TYPE EFFECT ON THE USE OF COMMUNICATION STRATEGIES

Author(s): Elvir Shtavica

Abstract:  An argument that many foreign language students encounter oral communication problems while they try to express their meaning to their partners has encouraged a number of eminent scholars to analyze the use of communication strategies based on the type of the task activity and the level of proficiency. In this paper, the task type effect and the students’ proficiency levels on the communication strategies employed by Kosovan and Bosnian speakers of English were investigated. The purpose of the study was to determine if the students’ proficiency levels and the task type influenced the choice and the number of communication strategies at lexical degree in verbal communication. The study numbered 20 participants in total; Kosovan and Bosnian languages that use English as a foreign language. The subjects were selected upon their degree of proficiency (i.e. Elementary and Intermediate) levels and were asked to carry out three different types of the tasks: ten minutes of oral communication, picture story narration and photographic description. The data of the assigned tasks came from audio and video-recording. Thus, the current study used the taxonomy of communication strategies employed by Tarone (1977). Likewise, the communication strategies used by both levels of the students were observed and compared in special instances. It was summarized that the task type and the level of proficiency influenced the number and the choice of different communication strategies in verbal performances. To indicate the present observable facts, two main aspects of the nature of the given tasks were pointed out: context in the task and task demands, respectively.

Keywords: communication strategies; task type; proficiency level; language proficiency

Pagination: 7-17

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Title: UNDERSTANDING OUR AUDIENCE: THE WRITING OF EMAIL MESSAGES FROM CONCEPT TO COMPLETION

Author(s): Tharwat EL-Sakran

Abstract: The United Arab Emirates (UAE) is a business hub for a great number of multinational and international companies that conduct daily communication activities in English, which has made efficient and audience sensitive written communication an essential requirement in today’s workplace. With computer-mediated communication (CMC) taking over face-to-face communication, this has created an essential need for students to learn efficient and appropriate communication styles pertinent to communication via emails. This study presents a pragmatic approach for teaching the how of writing appropriate and effective professional email messages. Comparisons of pre-and post-teaching email messages point to significant improvements in the quality of post teaching email messages.

Keywords: writing email messages, professional business communication, computer mediated communication, audience awareness

Pagination: 19-30

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Title: AN ANALYSIS OF CONVERSATIONAL DISCOURSE IN MEDICAL SETTINGS FOR LEARNERS OF GERMAN: LANGUAGE, COMMUNICATION AND PEDAGOGY

Author(s): Ray C. H. Leung

Abstract: The recent sociopolitical circumstances in Germany have led to the popularization of teaching German as a foreign language (Deutsch als Fremdsprache, DaF) within the country. To cater to the different needs or goals of learners, various DaF materials including those for specific occupational purposes have been designed. Assuming that dialogues in contemporary DaF textbooks constitute the important means of socializing learners into the use of the target language in real-life communication, this paper examined 29 conversations provided in an audio recording of a DaF textbook for non-physician healthcare workers. The healthcare sector was chosen because it is the profession in which DaF foreigners are often recruited. The major objective of the current research is to identify any pedagogic values of the dialogues. To this end, the utterances of the medical personnel in the dialogues were analyzed in accordance with Halliday’s (1975) model about the seven functions of language. Attention was also paid to how these functions are linguistically manifested for medical communication as well as the construction of professional identity. The findings underscore the different roles which healthcare employees play in their workplace. These roles include providing or gathering information, building up rapport and regulating patients’ behavior. Besides, the function-form correspondence is evident in the data. For instance, where the “instrumental” function is concerned, the healthcare workers tend to articulate their medical routine as a desire with ich möchte [I want to]. On the other hand, the “personal” function is typically realized by phrases like ich glaube [I believe], which preface the healthcare workers’ medical judgment or advice. Last but not least, the data offer insights into how healthcare workers perform their professional identity during communication. One example is the simultaneous use of medical jargon and its generic equivalent (e.g., Amlodipin [amlodipine] versus Blutdrucktabletten [blood pressure tablets]) to display their expertise without jeopardizing patients’ understanding. Given the findings of this study, DaF practitioners working in the field of Languages for Specific Purposes (LSP)are advised to use the dialogues in textbooks to systematically cultivate learners’ consciousness of how linguistic resources can be mobilized for communication in their profession.

Keywords: German as a foreign language; language for specific purposes; medical communication; conversational discourse; textbooks; professional identity

Pagination: 31-42

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Title: GLOBALIZATION, COMMUNICATION, EDUCATION

Author(s): Monica Condruz-Bacescu

Abstract: The paper focuses on the issues of globalization, communication and education. Globalization has become the fundamental theme of political discourse, through its economic dimension, namely by opening up the economic markets in search of new stability points of contemporary developed capitalism; a phenomenon that has led to the free movement of labor, thus involving the social dimension, the circle being closed with the educational dimension because the individual, regardless of the cultural context in which he/she lives, needs training. The global economy cannot be conceived without international communication, which has become a premise of economic success in recent decades. Such communication on which the economic partnerships and multinational organizations are based presupposes an accurate perception and interpretation of the different cultures other than those in which the economic activity takes place and a permanent negotiation of the symbols and reference systems. Education undoubtedly plays an important role in any attempt to address communication networks in these moments of explosive development, networks that mediate communication between people and can thereby help to bring them closer together. Education must directly follow the transformations and new requirements in order to support future changes and professional training. In this direction, education will have as an educational purpose the development of the consciousness of the links between the different components and participants, regardless of the geographic area in which they operate, and on this basis the building of the partnership.  Education needs to efficiently and extensively convey that knowledge and information adapted to the new civilization of globalization that does not overwhelm but contribute to the development of people at individual and community level. It must also trace the transformations of the new world that is constantly moving, and at the same time make available to people the tools of guidance with which they can find their way of affirmation and continuous development.

Keywords: globalization; communication; education; economic environment; transculturality; multiculturalism.

Pagination: 43-56

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Title: AUTHENTIC MATERIALS VS TEXTBOOKS IN ESP (ENGLISH FOR SPECIFIC PURPOSES)

Author(s): Elena Spirovska Tevdovska

Abstract: The purpose of this study is to analyze and compare the value of authentic materials and textbooks in ESP English for Specific Purposes) learning and teaching context. The study compares the characteristics of the authentic materials and the characteristics of textbooks designed and selected for the purpose of teaching and learning English as a foreign language in ESP setting. The study defines the role of materials in ESP setting and compares the benefits and possible drawbacks of both types of materials and resources: the authentic materials in English for Specific Purposes context compared to traditional textbooks designed for the purpose of teaching and learning English for Specific Purposes. The study identifies the benefits of authentic materials, which include the richness as an input source and the authenticity of the tasks offered to learners, as well as the negative sides of authentic materials, which include the level of difficulty that these materials might present to the learner . Furthermore, the study identifies the benefits of textbooks, which include available sources for the learners and less time consuming class preparation for the teachers, as well as the drawbacks which include the impossibility of finding a textbook which corresponds entirely to learners’ needs. In addition, the article focuses on teachers’ attitudes and opinions regarding the appropriateness and exploitability of each source and their preferences and reasons for material selection. The target population consists of eleven lecturers who teach English for Specific Purposes in tertiary education. The lecturers teach various branches of ESP, including ESP for Computer Sciences, Business, Communication and Legal Studies. Data collection is conducted through a specifically designed questionnaire, addressing the questions of materials selection, teachers’ preferences regarding textbooks or authentic materials and the selection criteria applied by the lecturers.  Furthermore, the article attempts to offer recommendations regarding materials selection and opting between authentic materials and/or textbooks in ESP setting.

Keywords: authentic; ESP; textbooks; authentic materials; selection of materials

Pagination: 57-66

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Title: A CASE FOR THE USE OF TRANSLATION IN ESP CLASSES

Author(s): Olivia Chirobocea

Abstract: This article is a plea for the use of translation as a teaching method in the EFL (English as a Foreign Language) class in general and the ESP (English for Specific Purposes) class in particular, by highlighting its advantages, as revealed by recent research in the field. Translation as a teaching method was associated for a long time with the Grammar Translation method, and fell from grace sometime in the mid-20th century, where it remained until recently. Despite this marginalization, in EFL, many teachers have been quietly using both L1 (mother tongue) for explanations and translation as a supplemental teaching method. Its value has been reasserted by numerous recent theorists and their research. They have demonstrated repeatedly, as this paper will attest, that translation exercises have undisputed value if used pertinently and efficiently, and if prepared with specific goals in mind. Thus, for several years now, translation has regained its legitimate place in the teaching of English and has re-emerged as a useful tool in this endeavour. In English for Specific Purposes (ESP), its usefulness is even more appreciated, as this paper will propose. The purpose of this article is twofold. The first part is a presentation of the latest research regarding the use of L1 in the classroom and the issue of translation employed as a learning technique, with a review of the relevant literature. The second part refers specifically to ESP and to the particularities of this branch of EFL, offering a few suggestions for types of translation activities and ways in which they can be useful in such classes. The aim is to bring evidence that translation is neither old nor obsolete, but a valid teaching method that helps learners by consolidating difficult grammar issues, clarifying confusing aspects, enriching vocabulary and generally improving their knowledge of English.

Keywords: ESP; translation; terminology; teaching method; skill

Pagination: 67-76

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Title: NEUE WEGE IN DER FREMDSPRACHENLEHRERAUSBILDUNG. EIN PROJEKT AN DER PHILOLOGISCHEN FAKULTÄT DER UNIVERSITÄT ZU BANJA LUKA (BIH) / NEW WAYS OF EDUCATING FOREIGN LANGUAGE TEACHERS. A PROJECT AT THE FACULTY OF PHILOLOGY, UNIVERSITY OF BANJA LUKA (B&H)

Author(s): Radanović Sanja

Abstract: The future teachers of foreign languages are educated at the Faculty of Philology at the University of Banja Luka. Although it is a pedagogical faculty teaching faculty, the curricula have been dominated by linguistic and literary subjects. The studies are oriented towards the philology-model. The pedagogical group of subjects and teaching practice were for many years only a pendant of the studies. However, a few years ago, the importance of teaching practice was acknowledged and the idea was created to devote much more attention to this issue and to organize the practice in a way that will help students much more in preparing for a future teaching profession. In the forthcoming paper, the way of organizing teaching practice at the Faculty of Philology at the University of Banja Luka is presented in detail, as well as the multiple benefits arising from it.

Keywords: future foreign language teachers, foreign language teacher education, philology-model, teaching practice, foreign language courses, competences

Pagination: 77-85

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Title: ARZTBRIEFE IM MEDIZINISCHEN FACHSPRACHENUNTERRICHT DEUTSCH. EINE KONTRASTIVE TEXTSORTENANALYSE / THE GENRE OF MEDICAL REPORT IN TEACHING MEDICAL GERMAN. A CONTRASTIVE GENRE ANALYSIS

Author(s): Renáta Halász, Katalin Fogarasi

Abstract: 

Medical report represents an important written genre in medical communication including medical history, present symptoms, findings and treatment measures. Medical histories are based on patient interviews and represent a summary of both the previous medical findings and the information gained by asking patients targeted questions. While interviewing them, physicians follow a specific sequence of questions to provide a structure for a logically comprehensible medical history, which facilitates an accurate diagnosis. The current study aims to describe and compare the genre of ‘medical report’ and especially its part ‘medical history’ in Germany, Austria and Hungary as well as to detect phraseological patterns typical of the genre in the three languages. The study was carried out on a corpus of medical reports dating from 2012-2016 and provided by the Clinical Centre of the University of Pécs (Hungary) as well as by hospitals from different federal states of Germany and Austria. Terms and phraseological units were investigated using concordance and statistical analysis.The results of the study prove that knowing the structural norms and phraseological units improves communication between physicians, what is more, it is required for their participation in the discourse community as competent members in both the native and the foreign language. Therefore, Hungarian medical students learning Medical German should be introduced into writing medical reports in German, using authentic samples. The knowledge of generic norms applied in Germany and Austria conveys additional intercultural competence skills, which are essential for the written communication with their foreign colleagues.

Keywords: medical report, genre analysis, function and structure of medical reports, medical report in teaching LSP, LSP phraseologisms, intercultural competence skills, patient history

Pagination: 87-102

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Title: SEBASTIAN SUSTECK (Hrsg.)  EMPIRISCHE UNTERSUCHUNGEN ZU DEUTSCHUNTERRICHT UND MIGRATION / SEBASTIAN SUSTECK (Editor) EMPIRICAL RESEARCH TO TEACHING GERMAN AND MIGRATION

Author(s): Andrea Hamburg

Pagination: 103-108

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Title: IULIA PARA’S BUSINESS DICTIONARIES

Author(s): Ioana Claudia Horea

Pagination: 109-113

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Title: HERMANN FUNK / MANJA GERLACH / DOROTHEA SPANIEL-WEISE (Editors) HANDBOOK FOR FOREIGN LANGUAGE LEARNING IN ONLINE TANDEMS AND EDUCATIONAL SETTINGS

Author(s): Andrea Hamburg

Pagination: 115-118

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Title: CAMBRIDGE SCHOLARS’ LANGUAGE BEYOND THE CLASSROOM

Author(s): Ioana Claudia Horea, Cristian Dorin Horea

Pagination: 119-124

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4th Issue – March 2017

Sunday, March 19th, 2017

coperta jlsp issue 4

Full volume of The Journal of Languages for Specific Purposes (JLSP) – 4th Issue – March 2017

Title: UNIVERSITY STUDENTS’ PERCEPTIONS OF TRANSFER OF ACADEMIC WRITING SKILLS ACROSS TIME

Author(s): Tharwat EL-Sakran, Khawlah Ahmed, Aya EL-Sakran

Abstract:  This study investigates university students’ perceptions towards an English for advanced academic writing purposes (AAW) course taught in a private university in the United Arab Emirates. It probes into the relevance of the skills taught to the students’ academic disciplines. Data was gathered through a short survey administered to students who successfully completed the course. The transferability of skills was measured in light of some of the learning objectives of the AAW stated in its syllabus. Findings indicated positive students’ attitudes towards the AAW course. They also revealed that some learning outcomes did transfer to students’ writing tasks in their major courses. However, transfer of these skills was more noticeable in some university disciplines (e.g. English) more than others (e.g. Business Administration).  Detailed explanations of reasons and contexts for skill transfer are presented. This research concludes with some pedagogical recommendations and suggestions for course improvement and further research.

Keywords: Leaning transfer; academic writing; students’ perceptions; latent learning

Pagination: 7-23

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Title: ENGLISH LANGUAGE AND ROMANIAN MEDIA

Author(s): Monica Condruz-Bacescu

Abstract: The paper deals with the significant increase of English words and expressions in Romanian media, in the general context of English and American words’ invasion. The premise from which we start to analyze the influence of English on Romanian audiovisual space is that this influence is specific not only to Romania, but is also found in many countries worldwide. Massive borrowing of Anglo-American terms was obvious after the Second World War in most European languages. This paper constitutes an awareness call to all communication specialists, putting particular emphasis on journalists’ role and those responsible in communication to convey future generations  a constant concern for all that means Romanian language. The second part of the paper presents examples of necessary borrowings and luxury Anglicisms from different fields: economic, financial, trade, education and research; sports, communication and media terminology. Then, the next part deals with examples from Romanian newspapers, magazines, from TV and radio. The media, the main providers of Anglicisms, have built a secondary reality, relying on information, reports and interpretations which they select, order them according to priorities, and spread them among the public, using a certain terminology. The attitude of speakers and specialists to the avalanche of English terms in Romanian audiovisual language must be a rational one, since it is necessary to measure both advantages and disadvantages. Therefore, in this paper I wish to plead for quality in journalistic expression without blaming the use of anglicisms or neologisms regardless of the language of origin. On the contrary, I would like to emphasize that, when their use is justified in terms of terminology and when they come to cover a semantic void or a more precise meaning, borrowings may be a demonstration of spirituality, enrichment, networking and integration of science and modern technology. The conclusion is that the influence of English should not be considered a negative phenomenon, not being more dangerous than other foreign influences that have occurred over time in our language, as long as their use is not exaggerated.

Keywords: audio-visual space; anglicisms; Romanian language; globalisation; words and expressions

Pagination: 25-40

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Title: EXPLORING THE RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN AUTHENTIC DIALOGUE AND SPANISH FOR HEALTHCARE PROFESSIONALS

Author(s): Karol Hardin

Abstract: Although linguistic studies of healthcare communication are common for English dialects, they are less frequent for Spanish. Furthermore, linguistic research is virtually non-existent for Ecuadorian healthcare discourse, primarily occurring in literature on anthropology rather than linguistics per se. The present study therefore uses a qualitative approach to examine videotaped dialogues between ten Spanish-speaking patients and two Spanish-speaking physicians at a hospital in eastern Ecuador. The study’s goal was to observe naturally occurring communication to determine how patients and family physicians negotiated meaning in medical interviews. Dialogues were transcribed using a conversational analysis methodology and then were specifically analyzed by applying Cordella’s (2004) notion of physician “voices” to investigate ways that doctors conveyed different roles they had during an interview. Examples of the “Doctor, Educator, and Fellow Human” voices were reflected in the data, both in complementary and overlapping contexts. A secondary goal of the study was to provide videos of authentic medical interviews for use in teaching aspects of conversation to students taking intermediate Spanish for pre-health professions. Responses to questions about the video suggested that as students worked to improve their comprehension in a clinical context, the video dialogue raised their awareness about pragmatic notions such as politeness and register, “voices” (or roles) that physicians and patients use in cooperative/non-cooperative interaction, certain discourse markers, and embedded cultural beliefs about health. As a result, authentic dialogue within this specific context, that of medical Spanish interviews, served as a meaningful method for teaching pragmatic concepts, negotiation of meaning, and culturally implied information. It is therefore likely that authentic health conversations such as those in this study can inform language education for medical professionals and, by extension, that domain-specific dialogue likely has practical applications in other areas of instruction in languages for specific purposes.

Keywords: Medical Spanish; health communication; medical interviews; physician roles; Spanish language education;dialogue

Pagination: 41-51

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Title: SYNONYMS IN GERMAN ONLINE MONOLINGUAL DICTIONARIES

Author(s): Paloma Sánchez Hernández

Abstract: This study includes both theoretical and qualitative research and falls within the framework of semantics and lexicography. It is based on work conducted as a part of the COMBIDIGILEX research project: MINECO-FEDER FFI2015-64476-P. The lexicographical description proposed in the COMBIDIGILEX project is based on the foundations of bilingual lexicography from an onomasiological perspective, including paradigmatic information and syntagmatic analysis, which is useful to users creating texts for students at an advanced level. The project analyses verbal lexemes in German and Spanish based on a paradigmatic, syntagmatic, orthographic and morphological perspective (among others). Subsequently, a contrastive analysis was conducted between both languages. In this contribution, we first analyse what paradigmatic information is, including its relevance to a dictionary. Paradigmatic information includes not only synonyms and antonyms but also hyperonyms and hyponyms, which often complete the lexicographical article in a general dictionary. Paradigmatic relations can be observed in light of semantic definitions or may independently become part of the lexical entry. Forming the paradigmatic information of an entry in an independent manner is known as “intentionelle Paradigmatik”, and it constitutes a series of advantages in the dictionary (Hausmann 1991b: 2794). This type of information aids the processes of production and expands vocabulary. Next, we examine the appearance of synonyms in three German online monolingual dictionaries – DWDS, WORTSCHATZLEXIKON and DUDEN ONLINE – from the semantic perspective of cognition verbs. The primary objective of the study is to demonstrate the relevance of this type of information as well as the needs it covers from a user’s perspective. Offering the user a series of lexical elements along with information on semantic relations of a paradigmatic nature thus addresses the issue of users having an array of possibilities at their disposal with which to express themselves. From these possibilities, the user can choose the one that best suits his or her purpose based on a variety of requisites, such as the type of text, stylistic recourses and so on, allowing the most fitting linguistic element to be inserted into the text. Another related objective is learning the ways in which paradigmatic information is reflected in these dictionaries. Thus, the differences between general monolingual dictionaries presenting paradigmatic information and paradigmatic dictionaries are revealed.

Keywords: Paradigmatic Information; Lexicography; Synonyms; Online Dictionary; Onomasiological Perspective.

Pagination: 53-63

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Title: A COMPARATIVE ANALYSIS OF THE ENGLISH TESTS FOR UNIVERSITY ENTRANCE IN SPAIN AND GERMANY

Author(s): Ray C. H. Leung

Abstract: This paper is a comparative analysis of the English language assessment of the university entrance examinations “la Selectividad” and “das Abitur” administered nationwide in Spain and Germany respectively. It is of particular interest to researchers and practitioners of English as a foreign language. The major objective of the current research is to identify any similarities and/or differences in the assessment of English as a foreign language for university admission between the two countries. To this end, the test papers used in 2015 for students in Madrid and Berlin were investigated qualitatively. In order for the analysis to be more systematic, the framework from Douglas (2000) was employed. The findings demonstrate that the two national tests share some similarities. First, the candidates of both tests are required to read the given textual input first before they can complete the writing tasks. Second, listening and speaking skills are not assessed in both tests. On the other hand, overt contrasts between the two tests were identified. The assessment designed for the German students takes longer to complete, and it contains a markedly larger amount of textual data. Furthermore, Spanish students are expected to give “selected response” or “limited response” most of the time while “extended response” to all questions is elicited from German candidates. The findings of this study are valuable because they have shown that the national assessment of English as a foreign language for university admission can vary greatly across non-English-speaking European countries. The assessment in Germany appears to be more challenging than the one in Spain, notwithstanding the very early start of English learning among Spanish children. Given the status of English as an international language, it is highly recommended that some measures be taken, at least among members of the European Union (e.g., via a committee modeling on the Bologna Process), to harmonize the assessment of English as a foreign language for the purpose of university admission.

Keywords: university entrance examination; English language assessment; la Selectividad; das Abitur; English as a foreign language; comparative analysis

Pagination: 65-75

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Title: STRATÉGIES DE CONSTRUCTION D’UN DISCOURS POSITIF. LE CAS DES SITES WEB DES PRATICIENS DE L’ART DENTAIRE / STRATEGIES OF POSITIVE DISCOURSE CONSTRUCTION. THE CASE OF DENTAL ART PRACTICES WEBSITES

Author(s): Andra-Teodora Porumb, Cristian Porumb

Abstract: In most cases, before choosing a dentist and request an appointment, the patient gets informed from relatives, friends, and acquaintances. Nowadays he also has the opportunity to make the choice by consulting websites or Facebook pages of dentists. The trust is outlined prior to the meeting itself, before stepping into the cabinet. For good visibility, for attracting and retaining a greater number of patients, for an effective communication with patients as well as for gaining their trust, many dentists have decided to create their websites so as to present the cabinet and their services on the Internet. Moreover, their mere presence on the Internet gives authority and gives the impression of strong, well-prepared, modern and open personalities. If the speech they build manages to calm the fears and anxieties of the patient, if the tone is warm and close to the patient, if the site is attractive, not only informative, the patient will be convinced of the qualities and competence of the doctor and his team, of the fact that they will benefit of quality treatment in a pleasant and modern environment. We consulted numerous sites from different cultural environments – French, Italian and Romanian and, given the size of this paper, we presented the theme construction of the discourse in three of them, from the perspective of the French School of discourse analysis. In our view, the theme construction gives clues on how the organization shapes its identity, being a collective discursive construction. We examined what information was selected to be presented, the way they are organized and prioritized, the layout, titration, the text – photo / audio-visual documents relation. Each and every time we found the concern to provide information and explanations, the focus on some keywords (quality, accuracy, competence, experience, performance, innovation), the constant presence of the word “smile” in the discourse, an important number of images, building a speech steeped with trademarks of subjectivity and the preference for certain isotopes. All these rhetorical strategies contribute to a positive attitude towards the dentist and dental treatments.

Keywords: discourse analysis, theme construction, organizational identity, site web, dental esthetics

Pagination: 77-92

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Title: MODULES LINGUISTIQUES ADAPTÉS AU SECTEUR DU TOURISME / LINGUISTIC MODULES ADAPTED TO THE TOURISM SECTOR

Author(s): Mária Czellér

Abstract: Due to the application of new technologies, computers as the new medium of our society have opened a new dimension of teaching languages. Information systems allow for leaving the classroom virtually, finding authentic and topical teaching resources in the target language.  The present study shows how teachers can incorporate the internet in teaching foreign languages for specific purposes and aims to outline a new language learning project applying blended learning at the University of Debrecen, Hungary. The project is aiming at reaching language competence levels expected by the job market, and also developing a language teaching program which is adjusted to the new learning routines of the students. This article gives a detailed presentation of a training programme developed in French for students majoring in tourism and hospitality BA education at the University of Debrecen. The curriculum is designed to improve written and oral communication skills in situations arising in the context of tourism. Thus a wide range of topics most important in the world of work and vocabulary development (writing a CV, finding a job, tourism internships, the hotel and the restaurant industry, etc.) are included. The article also presents how job interviews and meetings in foreign languages and other everyday situations can be included in the curriculum. Special attention is paid to motivating students with online materials and introducing internet resources for language practice and information acquisition in order to make language learning more enjoyable. Since Hungarian undergraduate students need to pass a B2 level exam in one or two foreign languages in order to receive a degree, this paper also sets out to present the students’ specific language needs. Thus, we demonstrate that our aim is to adjust the course to learners’ needs and provide the most suitable materials in order to achieve set goals: to cover the exam requirements and at the same time prepare learners for their future work.

Keywords: information technology, language learning project, tourism, exam requirements

Pagination: 93-105

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Title: SPRACHLICHE UND KULTURELLE INTEGRATION VON FLÜCHTLINGEN – NEUE HERAUSFORDERUNGEN FÜR DIE ERWACHSENENBILDUNG IN EUROPA DES XXI. JAHRHUNDERTS / LINGUISTIC AND CULTURAL INTEGRATION OF REFUGEES – NEW CHALLENGES FOR ADULT EDUCATION IN XXIST CENTURY EUROPE

Author(s): Andrea Hamburg

Abstract: Following study deals with the chances of integrating immigrants into European culture. Therefore several aspects are to be analysed like: is there any linguistic and above all cultural integration possible at all, which are the factors potentially playing an important role in this respect, what are the plans for accomplishing the assimilation process, what kind of tools are there or should be developed for measuring the degree of success in integrating immigrants, what is the planned time frame for the whole project? Having a didactic approach the study tries to answer to all of the above questions and to propose methods or tools for supporting the integration process and enhancing its expected outcomes.

There are numerous studies upon cultural, economic and overall integration of immigrants in Europe analysing the situation for the last five to six decades, i.e. measuring the integration rate of respective people until the end of the first decade of the XXIst century. Although these studies come to the conclusion that second-generation immigrants mostly present a native-like behaviour as a sign for successful integration, only Muslim people having some deficiencies in this respect, these findings are not by all means valid for the new wave of immigrants with mainly Muslim background flooding in Europe since 2015. Thus according to my opinion an optimistic view upon the success of the integration of newly come people is not founded at all.

From the various factors supporting integration present study deals with motivation and intermarriage. The internal motivation of each individual to language acquisition necessary for every day and professional life and to adopt a behaviour pattern according to European values could be enhanced by external motivation resulting from political-institutional measures.

In immigrants’ integration process not only linguistic, but above all cultural integration should play a crucial role because integration cannot be accomplished in lack of this component. That’s why study materials should be conceived according to the principles and tools of CLIL (Content and Language Integrated Learning) where content should hint at role and legal position of women and children in European societies. Beside language classes combining linguistic and country-specific cultural elements, intercultural training conducted by experts in this field would be of great help.

By measuring the degree of integration both linguistic and cultural integration rate should be taken into consideration. While in language acquisition advances are much easier to observe and measure, for the time being we lack adequate tools for evaluating the degree of cultural integration. These tools are still to be developed. Albeit the outcomes of the whole process are not predictable, one thing is sure, in this project collaboration among education policy makers, sociologists, psychologists, education experts and representatives of other scientific branches is needed.

Keywords: linguistic and cultural integration; migration; European cultural values; content and language integrated learning; intercultural training

Pagination: 107-114

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Title: ANDREA HAMBURG’S TRILINGUAL DICTIONARY FOR TOURISM. GERMAN – ROMANIAN – HUNGARIAN

Author(s): Ioana Claudia Horea

Pagination: 115-119

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Title: FAMILIE UND VERWANDTSCHAFTSBEZEICHNUNGEN IN VERSCHIEDENEN SPRACHEN / FAMILY AND TERMS OF KINSHIP THROUGH THE PRISM OF LANGUAGES

Author(s): Andrea Hamburg

Pagination: 121-128

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3rd Issue – March 2016

Wednesday, March 23rd, 2016

coperta-JLSP-B5-2016_Page_1

Full volume of The Journal of Languages for Specific Purposes (JLSP) – 3nd Issue – March 2016

Title: ENGLISH LANGUAGE IN THE ROMANIAN ECONOMIC FIELD AND BUSINESS ENVIRONMENT: A NECESSITY OR A FAD?

Author(s): Monica Condruz-Bacescu

Abstract: The purpose of the present article is to analyse the influence of anglicisms in the Romanian economic field and business environment. English influence in Romanian, very pronounced in the current European languages, is accomplished both by taking massive lexical elements and by assigning meanings of English borrowings to Romanian words. The emergence of English words’ borrowings in our country is due to the current socio-political conditions and widening of economic-financial relations with the Western world, the English words being used by specialists for communication and information in all fields, as well as speakers who tend to practice English as the international language of communication. Major transformations in the international social-economic organization imposed the development of modern disciplines: finance, statistics, management, marketing, business administration, whose languages are subordinated to the economic field. The research is intended to provide examples of English borrowings used in the economic language. English terms, specialized or not, especially in the form of a borrowing, penetrate directly in all economic subdomains, by virtue of an interference trend (manifested internationally) concerning terminologies and the relations of specialized vocabulary with the usual one. One way of English terms entering the Romanian language is the specialised texts. The article also points out terminology concerning conditions of delivery and international business transactions. The written or spoken media contributes greatly to the spread of anglicisms that inform the public on various issues and developments in the social, political, cultural and economic aspects, nationally and internationally, having an important role in English vocabulary’ modernization by borrowing from English. The conclusion of the article is that with all the difficulties of adapting to the linguistic system of the Romanian language, the English borrowings continue to get massive and rapid in our current language, speeding the process of vocabulary enrichment, also resulting in major changes at other levels of the system.

Keywords: economic language; communication; anglicisms; business environment; English influence

Pagination: 7-18

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Title: EPONYMY BASED ON NAMES OF COMPANIES

Author(s): Éva Kovács

Abstract: As is generally defined, eponymy, one of the word-formation processes refers to the derivation of a name of a city, country, era, institution, or other place or thing from that of a person such as sandwich, wellington, mackintosh or cardigan. Eponymy can be classified in several ways, some refer to foods (Pizza Margaritha), diseases (Alzheimer disease), places (Washington), scientific laws (Archimedes’s principle) and sport terms (Axel jump), whereas others indicate trademarks, brand names (aspirin), prizes, awards (Nobel Prize), inventions (Rubic’s Cube), ideologies (Darwinism), colleges, universities (Stanford University) and companies (Ford). The present paper discusses eponyms which denote companies based on the name of their founder(s) (e.g. Porsche, Siemens, Gucci, Campari, Cadbury, McDonald’s and Walt Disney, etc.) by revealing what kind of a metonymic relationship is manifested in them. Cognitive linguists, such as Lakoff and Johnson (1980), Radden and Kövecses (1999) and Kövecses (2002) state that metonymy is essentially a conceptual phenomenon, in which one conceptual entity, the vehicle, provides mental access to another conceptual entity, the target, within the same idealized cognitive model. In fact, metonymy is part of our everyday way of thinking, and is grounded in experience. Common metonymies include PRODUCER FOR PRODUCT (Pass me the Shakespeare on the top shelf.), PLACE FOR EVENT (Iraq nearly cost Tony Blair the premiership), PLACE FOR INSTITUTION (Downing Street refused comment.), PART FOR THE WHOLE (She’s not just a pretty face.), WHOLE FOR THE PART (England beat Australia in the 2003 Rugby World Cup final.) and EFFECT FOR CAUSE (He has a long face.). Following the cognitive approach to metonyms, I tentatively suggest that the metonymy PRODUCER FOR THE PRODUCT can be observed in the case of car makes, products of famous fashion houses, cosmetics and drinks as is illustrated by examples like He’s bought a Ferrari. I ate a McDonald or We watched Walt Disney all day. I also point out that the producer and the product belong to the idealized cognitive model of PRODUCTION, in which the vehicle is the company producing the product and the target is the product produced by it.

Keywords: eponymy; word-formation; company names; metonymy; cognitive linguistics

Pagination: 19-28

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Title: THE CONTRIBUTION OF COMPLEXITY, ACCURACY AND FLUENCY TO LANGUAGE FOR SPECIFIC PURPOSES

Author(s): Anthony Rausch

Abstract: This paper will outline an instructional approach that proposes a Complexity, Accuracy, Fluency (CAF) paradigm as a means of providing learners with the CAF-based communication consciousness and CAF-oriented manipulative skills that are increasingly important in language use in Language for Specific Purposes. Given the complex combinations of communicative tasks, communicative formats and communicative circumstances that accompany the wide-ranging and various contexts of contemporary professional communication, communicative competence demands a combinative consciousness and informed application of Complexity, Accuracy and Fluency as a communication paradigm. Viewed as a combination of its three components, a CAF paradigm constitutes a fundamental ‘information, language and communication’ triad that can guide professional language use in any communicative circumstance. Viewed as a communicative skill set, the CAF triad implies the capability to adjust specific elements and aspects of information, language and communication as needed for a communicative task, whether in oral or print communication and regardless of task category. Adjusting complexity in this context refers to both content and language complexity. Adjusting accuracy refers to the conventions that dictate appropriate or acceptable language in a given context. Finally, adjusting fluency refers to a sense of communicative fluency, that which yields either smooth and persuasive language as in a native-speaker normative view or explicit and clearly explanatory language as necessary in some communicative encounters. The need to manipulate these three components depends on circumstance variables such as objective, available time, audience characteristics and the degree of detail desired. This paper will outline this combinative CAF notion as background to a materials development project being undertaken in a Japanese university, introducing the specifics of an Extended Reading Aloud format that involves learners in managing the content and language complexity, manipulating various language registers while focusing on accuracy, and proceduralizing communicative fluency in different communicative genres. While empirical testing of the interactions of Complexity, Accuracy and Fluency in a testing paradigm have yielded contentious and contradictory outcomes, the qualitative research findings presented in this paper contribute to an instructional application of CAF, a view that maximizes the potential of CAF in educational and communicative contexts. Although undertaken in a Japanese university English educational setting, the generalizations underlying the instructional materials are applicable to most ESL/EFL and LSP/ESP educational settings.

Keywords: complexity, accuracy, fluency, communication, instruction, materials

Pagination: 29-39

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Title: HOW ADVERTISING SHAPES OUR MINDS: PRAGMATIC AND COGNITIVE PERSPECTIVE

Author(s): Olena Olenyuk

Abstract: The immense role of advertising in modern world can hardly be limited only to persuading the addressee to buy a certain product. Its functions extend far beyond informing, influencing or stimulating and reach the level of cognition and conceptualization. The fact is advertising manipulates language to achieve its ends, and the strategies at its disposal are manifold. Moreover, it creates the substitute reality, which interferes with the recipient’s world view, thus realizing its manipulative potential. Manipulation as a specific form of hidden psychological persuasion involves two participants (a manipulator and a manipulated) and is aimed at psychological categories of anchors, targets, and social stereotypes. When extrapolated to the realm of cognitive linguistics, the above mentioned notions correspond to those of the frame of the addresser, the frame of the addressee and the basic concepts of advertising discourse. The purpose of this article is to view advertising discourse in terms of both pragmatics and cognitive linguistics in order to study the nature of manipulation exerted in it, to reveal the involved strategies, to single out the key concepts, which serve as the constituents of the world view, being simultaneously its reflectors and its moulders. In order to fulfil the objectives the wide range of linguistic methods has been employed. The methods of communicative approach in linguistics have been applied to single out the constituents of advertising as a complex speech macroact with the persuasive microact being the only obligatory one. The findings of linguistic psychology substantiate the manipulative nature of advertising. The functional analysis serves as the basis for revealing its communicative strategies. The application of the tools of cognitive linguistics enables the detection of six key concepts of advertising discourse and their conceptual markers.The modern American magazine advertising discourse within the period from 2009 to 2014 has been selected as the material for the research, with 2000 samples of advertising discourse being analyzed. The main conclusion to be drawn is that advertising contributes to moulding the addressee’s world view, thus affecting the way the recipient perceives the reality and shaping his/her values.To put it another way, advertising discourse causes shifts in human cognition and imposes on its recipients new ideals, standards and moral principles.

Keywords: advertising discourse; manipulation; world view; concept; conceptual markers.

Pagination: 41-50

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Title: NEW TRENDS IN 21ST CENTURY CIVIC ENGAGEMENT AND SPANISH FOR SPECIFIC PURPOSES: TECHNOLOGY, TRANSLATION, AND SOCIAL JUSTICE

Author(s): Diana Ruggiero, Sean Hill

Abstract: This paper presents a qualitative case study of a virtual service learning project that connected high school students in rural Michigan with communities and a non-profit developmental organization in Honduras. First, students created individual research presentations over Honduran history, current events, economics, and poverty. Second, students were introduced to the concept of service learning, the educational philosophy of Paulo Freire, and Muhammed Yunus’s micro-credit economic process through readings in the target language. Third, using collaborative and Internet-based technology such as Google Docs, students were able to successfully engage in a meaningful service learning opportunity to translate training documents for a micro-loan organization despite the lack of an accessible, locally based Spanish speaking community. Finally, students reflected on their experience with the service learning project. Additionally, the authors discuss the connection between the student translation project to ACTFL’s World-Readiness Standards for Language Learning and the formation of a 21stcentury skill set. While proximity and access to such physical communities remains an obstacle for many foreign language instructors seeking to integrate civic engagement, this case study presents one possible solution that pushes the boundaries of the very concepts of community and service learning.

Keywords: Foreign Languages; Civic Engagement; Service Learning; Technology; Collaboration; Translation; Social Justice

Pagination: 51-62

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Title: COMPARATIVE ANALYSIS ON EASTERN AND CENTRAL EUROPEAN STUDENTS’ INTERCULTURAL SENSITIVITY. RESEARCH CONDUCTED IN ROMANIA, HUNGARY AND SLOVENIA

Author(s): Hamburg Andrea

Abstract: The following study is meant to be an extension of and completion to a former research paper entitled “The Role of Foreign Language Teachers in Developing Students’ Intercultural Communication Skills” concluding that students of the University of Oradea, Romania, generally lack intercultural sensitivity and it falls to a great extent to foreign language teachers to change this state of affairs. When the former study came up with proposals for methods of enhancing students’ cultural awareness (see simulation games on cultural differences like Barnga, BaFá BaFá, Randömia Balloon Factory and others), the present study focuses on an international comparison, though limited to only three academic institutions in three countries, regarding Eastern and Central European students’ intercultural sensitivity. The initial idea was to see to what extent students of the University of Oradea, Romania, studying Economics, Medicine and Law dispose of intercultural skills. For this reason a Likert-type scale questionnaire was applied to more than 200 students of the above mentioned faculties. The survey was extended in the second round in Oradea, Romania, also to the Faculty of Environmental Protection and that of Electrical Engineering and Information Technology, respectively to an international level asking students of the University of Debrecen, Hungary and the University of Maribor, Slovenia, the same questions. Although we are aware of the limitations of present study, – only three institutions included in the research, having in Debrecen and Maribor less respondents than in Oradea and only from some fields of study, Slovenian students not getting a Slovenian version of the questionnaire, which may have influenced their level of understanding issues, responses not always being consistent – its results have still an informative value. They confirm the author’s initial hypothesis that in spite of the extended international relations and travel opportunities Romanian students are not really aware of cultural diversity and its overwhelming impact upon people’s behaviour, reactions and way of thinking. As to our surprise there are no better results with the other two nations either, specific measures are to be taken in this respect including not only valuable contribution of foreign language teachers – as proposed in the former study – but also curriculum change by incorporating some form of intercultural training, too.

Keywords: intercultural communication competence; cultural differences; intercultural encounters; simulation games; curriculum change; intercultural training

Pagination: 63-71

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Title: PREPARING STUDENTS FOR BUSINESS LANGUAGE EXAMINATION WITH SPECIAL EMPHASIS ON DEVELOPING SPEAKING SKILLS

Author(s): Mária Czellér, Klára Nagy-Bodnár

Abstract: Today public awareness of technical language knowledge and the social demand for related language skills are on the rise, and the Hungarian labour market requires an increasingly competent command of foreign languages from professionals involved in business and economics; compliance with these growing demands is reflected in the nature and structure of teaching foreign languages in the Hungarian higher education institutions Due to the high degree of institutional autonomy each Hungarian university has the right to work out its own language teaching policy and adopt it in its training programme. This paper will show that foreign language study at Hungarian universities can be devoted either to general language or language for specific purposes. These criteria can differ according to the field of study,
Given that obtaining a language exam certificate is a pre-requisite of graduation, the role of academic education in providing students with the required knowledge base and successfully preparing them for language exams has become more important. The structure and content of modern business language exams reflect the need to meet the demands of the labour market. There has been a definite shift from grammar-oriented, translation-based tasks towards a more communicative approach which involves testing reading comprehension, writing skills and performance in situational role plays. However, while students generally cope well with understanding written business texts, many of them frequently fail in oral communication. Consequently, the question arises of whether it is possible to bridge the obvious gap between reading and speaking skills.
This paper aims to give a possible example of how a descriptive text can be adapted to prepare students for the situational role play tasks in business language exams at the Faculty of Economics and Business Administration, University of Debrecen.

Keywords: business, economics, languages, skills, exams

Pagination: 73-81

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Title: ANGLAIS DES SCIENCES, VARIETE D’ANGLAIS DE SPECIALITE : REFLEXIONS SUR LA FORMATION DES ENSEIGNANTS EN FRANCE/ ENGLISH FOR SCIENCE, A VARIETY OF SPECIALIZED ENGLISH :
REFLECTIONS ON TEACHERS ‘ TRAINING IN FRANCE

Author(s): Claire Chaplier

Abstract: We offer a reflection starting from field observation: the practice of teaching scientific English in a French scientific university (University Paul Sabatier-UPS-Toulouse) because it is our research and teaching domain. Let us not forget that English has become the universal language of science because of American globalization. At UPS, English teachers essentially design their courses of scientific English from constraints, training and experience. These difficulties are reinforced by the low recognition of their courses. These findings are part of the broader issue of LANSAD (Languages for Other Specialized Disciplines). Yet these teachers have been trained in the traditional areas of English (literature, civilization, language). Consequently the issue of training in this context arises. Because it is essential to be legitimate, credible and hence recognized in this domain. The problem lies in the very low number of masters in LANSAD and LSP/ASP. This is due to a few number of research work in the domain. We believe that recognition goes through research which must be credible by meeting certain external validity criteria and even more so in our scientific context. It is therefore necessary to undertake an epistemological approach of the LSP/ASP in their uses, by integrating the specialty that is missing in LSP studies (Van der Yeught, 2014) and the didactic dimension because LSP is a research and teaching subject, aiming at the competence in the specialty and not in their sole function of production of specialized knowledge. Because we believe that LSP can contribute to the professionalization of university courses (Van der Yeught, 2014). We would like to make our contribution to the epistemology of LSP/ASP with our research work in English for science that also covers teacher training in LANSAD in scientific university contexts. We set some milestones, beginning with the description of science in its relation to the English language-culture through an interdisciplinary approach: the history of science, sociology of science, philosophy of science. Finally, we offer food for thought on teacher training in LANSAD.

Keywords: scientific English; LSP; teacher training; didactics; epistemology

Pagination: 83-93

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Title: PROFILIERUNG DER PRAGMATISCHEN KOMPETENZ FREMDSPRACHENSTUDIERENDER/ PROFILING OF PRAGMATIC COMPETENCE IN FOREIGN LANGUAGE STUDENTS

Author(s): Biljana Ivanovska, Marija Kusevska, Nina Daskalovska, Liljana Mitkovska

Abstract: The aim of this study is to analyze the components that the foreign language students of German and English have to develop in order to improve the ability of pragmatic competence. This article presents a description of the first phase of our ongoing research project entitled “The role of explicit instruction in developing pragmatic competence in learning English and German as a foreign language” (”Die Rolle der expliziten Anweisung in der Entwicklung pragmatischer Kompetenz im Englischen und im Deutschen als Fremdsprache”) at the University “Goce Delcev” in Štip in the Republic of Macedonia, as well as it gives a short review about the development of pragmatic abilities of German and English language students. We first define the pragmatic ability, then we  discuss the tools that we have used for the collection of data, as well as the analysis method. Finally, we give an overview about further research of the project.

Keywords: pragmatic competence, speech acts, DCT, explicit instruction, role playing

Pagination: 95-107

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Title: PHONETISCHE EXPERIMENTELLE ANALYSE VON PHONEMEN DER GERMANISCHEN UND SLAWISCHEN SPRACHEN/ PHONETIC EXPERIMENTAL ANALYSIS OF PHONEMES OF THE GERMANIC
AND SLAVIC LANGUAGES

Author(s): Oleksandr Rudkivskyy

Abstract: The article is devoted to the problem of comparative analysis of vowel and consonant realization in contemporary German, English, Dutch, Ukrainian, Russian and Polish. This study also discusses the difference between comparative and contrastive methods, the procedure of the phonetic experiment, the tasks and hypotheses for comparative auditory and instrumental analysis of distinctive features of vowels and consonants of Germanic and Slavic languages. The organization of sampling and requirements for statistical data processing is described in the practical part of this study. In general, the realizations of 2313 German, English, Dutch, Ukrainian, Russian and Polish vowel and consonant phonemes are described separately in strong and weak positions. It is approved that Germanic consonants possess correlation of opposition both “density/ weakness” and “voiceless/ voiced”, while Slavic consonants are opposed only as “voiceless/ voiced”. The compulsory opposition “voiceless/ voiced” constitute stop consonants is observed in all studied languages although resonant, approximant, glottal and pharyngeal phonemes do not show it. The required devoicing of voiced consonants at the end of the word is characteristic only for German, Dutch and Russian consonants. Ukrainian and Polish consonants are marked with an optionality of this phonetic phenomenon, but in English it does not exist. The position of neutralization of the distinguishing feature “vocal cords activity” is the word end for German, Dutch, Russian and Polish consonants. A partial progressive assimilation of voiceless consonants is typical for German, English, Dutch, Russian, Polish, but in Ukrainian and Russian it is absent. The regressive assimilation of voiceless consonants is mandatory for Russian and Polish. For Ukrainian it is optional and positionally predetermined, and in Germanic languages it is not observed. A partial lenization of voiceless consonants in front of voiced consonants is peculiar to German, Russian and Polish. The most common change phenomenon is on the juncture of morphemes and phonetic words. In addition, the modification of Slavic consonants is often motivated by different morphological factors.

Keywords: distinctive feature, allophone, auditory and instrumental analysis, significance test, modification

Pagination: 109-124

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Title: HELEN DE SILVA JOYCE AND SUSAN FEEZ EXPLORING LITERACIES

Author(s): Ioana Claudia Horea, Cristian Dorin Horea

Pagination: 125-128

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2nd Issue – March 2015

Thursday, March 5th, 2015

coperta-JLSP-B5-2015-1

Full volume of The Journal of Languages for Specific Purposes (JLSP) – 2nd Issue – March 2015

Title: BUSINESS ENGLISH WORD GAMES – A WELCOMED VOCABULARY TEACHING TECHNIQUE

Author(s): Ioana Claudia Horea

Abstract: Introducing vocabulary has never been very problematic nor a doubt generating aspect in teaching a language, at least not in respect of what has to be done actually along this part of the lesson or how this stage should be approached. It cannot be said that it has ever been too much of a challenge, but rather a simple and straightforward phase in the economy of the English class. Business English vocabulary teaching methods have to make allowance for the specificity of the field, though. Thus, much consideration has to be given to the way Business English lexical units are introduced so that the technique used could produce the desired results into the students: acquisition of specific terminology, assimilation of meanings and development of skills that shall ensure accurate usage of the terms in the future. After an experimental semester, most adequate class approaches to serve the purposes abovementioned proved to be – rather non-academic, it may be argued – the word games. The current study presents the detailed steps of two distinct teaching methods used and the comparative results obtained with the two groups of students submitted to the experiment. Along the Business English courses in one semester, there were four vocabulary introduction lessons. The nonconformist technique of word games was implemented to one of the two groups of students while the other was taught the regular style. The comparative study focused on several aspects, from the observation of the class reactions and participation along the process of teaching, i.e. response to the didactic process during each class, to the checking of the effects of both types of implementation, namely assessing assimilation of the previously taught material in terms of knowledge of vocabulary and correct interpretation, by random tests and by final test results. If teaching methodologies regularly claim that the general to particular approach is the most effective, here a vice-versa technique won grounds, inciting, stirring the emulative spirit and inducing a natural assimilation of vocabulary by engaging in entertaining activities.

Keywords: vocabulary teaching, Business English, word games

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Title: ANGLICISMS IN ROMANIAN FASHION MAGAZINES. CASE STUDY – ELLE, HARPER’S BAZAAR, MARIE CLAIRE

Author(s): Anamaria-Mirabela Pop, Monica-Ariana Sim

Abstract: A growing segment of Romanian women are becoming passionate about fashion, therefore they are increasingly interested in fashion magazines and products. The incredible prevalence of English in Romanian media – both in written and spoken form – is at first shocking to a native English speaker. Phrases that seem to make no sense or that are not relevant to what they are attached to are seen everywhere: on t-shirts, as part of television advertisements, and in Romanian magazines. In this paper we assert that the English in Romanian media (fashion magazines) is more complicated than that; sometimes it is mainly decorative but it is able to communicate as well. Over the years, there have been many studies which dealt with anglicisms in Romanian, especially in science and information technologies. Yet, in spite of the growing number of English terms incorporated daily by the language of fashion, this has received less attention in lexicographic and terminological studies as compared to other areas, such as science and business. There are many reasons for which Romanian has not only adopted English words with new meaning and usage, but also incorporates other forms based on English patterns which users seem to consider more attractive or more accurate. More specifically, this paper analyses how English mixing contributes to self-distinction through fashion. We will analyse the Romanian language of fashion in three Romanian fashion magazines- ELLE, Harper’s Bazaar and Marie Claire -, which has for some time been using English words with different meanings, or even created Romanian words that look like and are pronounced like English words. The result of this study shows that these English mixings depend on the fashion-related quality of the selected magazines. The findings of this study imply that English is regarded as a ‘stylish language’ and that this general recognition leads to the acknowledgement of the prestigious status of English in Romania.

Keywords: anglicisms, fashion, language of fashion and style,

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Title: BRIDGING THE COMMUNITY AND INSTITUTION GAP: A SAMPLE COURSE WITH CIVIC ENGAGEMENT AND LANGUAGE FOR SPECIFIC PURPOSES COMBINED

Author: Diana Ruggiero

Abstract: A crisis looms on the horizon for graduate programs in foreign languages. It is evident in ever tightening budgets, institutional demands for cross departmental collaboration, interdisciplinary courses, community service-learning, online courses and majors, greater enrollment and retention, and student needs for applied language courses beyond those offered at the undergraduate level. Symptomatic of greater changes in the job market and society impacting the restructuring of higher education across the board, this crisis threatens to render graduate language programs as traditionally conceived obsolete. Meeting the current challenge, however, will require a critical reflection on not only existing course content and delivery, but also on the very purpose, potential value, and goals and objectives of graduate foreign language programs. To this end, this article presents a graduate level Spanish course combining civic engagement and Language for Specific Purposes (LSP), titled “Teaching Spanish for Specific Purposes and Civic Engagement.” (SSP) as well as model for assessment. This course serves as a model to graduate foreign language programs, aims to inspire interdisciplinary collaboration, and exemplifies the innovation needed in meeting current needs and challanges. In the process, this paper assesses the current state of graduate foreign language programs and considers the potential value of integrating LSP courses as a core component of graduate curricula. I argue that the development of such courses and the broadening of our thinking with regards to aims and objectives of graduate programs in foreign languages are imperative if we are to remain relevant for students, institutions of higher learning, and society at large in the ever-changing world of the 21st century.

Keywords: Service-learning; professional communication in foreign languages; Foreign language deficit; cross-cultural communication; languages for specific purposes; curricula development.

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Title: THE U.S. FOREIGN LANGUAGE DEFICIT, LANGUAGE ENTERPRISE, AND LANGUAGES FOR SPECIFIC PURPOSES

Author: Kathleen Stein-Smith

Abstract: At present, there is a gap between the need for foreign language skills and their availability in the U.S. marketplace, resulting in a monolingual American in a multilingual global workplace. The Language Enterprise, a partnership of government, academia, and the private sector, can collaborate to effectively address the U.S. foreign language deficit and to close the gap between the availability of foreign languages skills and the need for them in the U.S. workplace. High profile partnerships, such as the “Many Languages One World” (MLOW) Essay Contest and Global Youth Forum, and advocacy initiatives such as the American Association of Teachers of French (AATF) Commission on Advocacy, the National Organization of Business Language Educators (NOBLE), the Joint National Committee for Languages and the National Committee on Languages and International Studies (JNCL-NCLIS) will be described. This article will also examine career opportunities as language specialists and other careers enhanced by foreign language skills, as well as the importance of creating a sustainable framework for motivation in order to empower U.S. students studying foreign languages to achieve the level of foreign language proficiency needed in the workplace. In order to bring about the needed paradigm shift, a sustainable framework for successful foreign language learning would also require pre-professional and career-oriented programs in foreign languages included under the umbrella of Languages for Specific Purposes (LSP) and Business Language Studies (BLS). The recommendations of the Modern Language Association report, “Foreign Languages and Higher Education: New Structures for a Changed World,” with its proposed transformation of the traditional 2-tier system into an “integrative approach with multiple pathways to the major, clearly demonstrate the importance of programs in Languages for Specific Purposes (LSP) and Business Language Studies (BLS). Conclusions and future needs also include the significance and importance of high-profile partnerships such as “Many Languages One World,” (MLOW), the establishment and enforcement of foreign language requirements, the importance of heritage language speakers, and the necessity for a unified strategic advocacy campaign bringing together all sectors of the Language Enterprise.

Keywords: foreign language deficit; language enterprise; advocacy; many languages one world; language services; languages for specific purposes; business language studies.

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Title: L’APPRENTISSAGE DE L’ANGLAIS DE SPÉCIALITÉ : DE L’AUTHENTICITÉ AU DÉVELOPPEMENT D’UNE IDENTITÉ AUTHENTIQUE/ LEARNING ENGLISH FOR SPECIFIC PURPOSES (ESP): AUTHENTICITY AND THE DEVELOPMENT OF AN AUTHENTIC IDENTITY

Author: Dana Di Pardo Leon-Henri

Abstract: The aim of this article is to reflect on the notion of authenticity and the use of authentic materials in English for Specific Purposes (ESP). In the professional context, ESP requires the use of specialized and authentic documents. Within the framework of a professional language for specific purposes program, this article firstly proposes a definition of the notion of authenticity before undertaking to examine various forms and applications of authentic documents or tasks. The author also proposes the conception of a new paradigm model for authenticity in the shape of a diamond, which is based on the synthesis of existing qualitative research studies. In this paradigm, authenticity and the language teacher are at the core of language teaching which brings together the learners (and their needs), the professional tasks and the authentic documents. In order to better appreciate the usefulness of authentic documents – such as video, sound, texts and photos – in the ESP context, the pedagogical approaches and criteria which are involved in choosing appropriate authentic materials and tasks are also shared. In addition, the article offers insight into current research on how to successfully integrate authentic materials into the ESP teaching environment through the use of film and television series. The critical research and findings of this article are of use to teachers of language (for specific purposes teachers) or language didacticians who wish to focus on the use of authentic documents when preparing their syllabus. Finally, this article shows that simplifying authentic documents is not always in the best interest of learners who are preparing for careers which require candidates who are professional and ready for employment.

Keywords: Authenticity; authentic documents; English for Special Purposes (ESP); language didactics; pedagogical use of film; motivation.

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Title: INTERFERENZFEHLER IN SCHRIFTLICHEN ARBEITEN MAZEDONISCHSPRACHIGER DEUTSCHSTUDIERENDER/ INTERFERENCE MISTAKES IN WRITTEN MANIFESTATIONS OF
MACEDONIAN STUDENTS STUDYING GERMAN

Author: Biljana Ivanovska

Abstract: The focus of my research is to analyse, to describe and to explain the interference errors in the area of​​ morphosyntax that occur in the written works of the Macedonian students who are studying German as a foreign language at the Faculty of Philology, the University “Goce Delčev” in Štip, as well as to describe the learning difficulties in studying and acquiring German as a foreign language (GFL). The work consists of two main parts, a theoretical part and a practical part. In the theoretical part, the basic terms and definitions that are closely connected to the subject of this paper are discussed in details. Since the focus of this work lies in particular on the interference at morphosyntactic level, we will ignore the spelling errors, although there were a number of them in the examined texts. Above all, the process of intralingual transfer is brought to the foreground. The results of this paper can serve as a basis for the preparation of teaching materials and GFL-techniques that will facilitate the Macedonian students’ acquiring German language. In the practical part, the results of the analyzed interference errors in the written paper of the students, were described and explained. A main focus is laid on the morphosyntactic differences between the Macedonian and the German language system and the interference errors in the written works of GFL-students during the foreign language acquisition process.

Key words: interference; transfer; Interference errors; DaF

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Title: SPRACHFEHLER ALS LITERARISCHES AUSDRUCKSMITTEL. ANA BILIC DAS KLEINE STÜCK VOM GROSSEN HIMMEL/ SOLECISMS AS LITERARY DEVICES. ANA BILIC DAS KLEINE STÜCK VOM GROSSEN HIMMEL

Author: Goran Lovrić Marina Lovrić

Abstract: This paper elaborates a theme at the interface between linguistics and literature on the case example of a novel which belongs to the immigrant literature as part of the contemporary Austrian literature. The Croatian author Ana Bilic describes in her first novel written in German language Das kleine Stück vom großen Himmel (The small part of the big sky) published in 2002 the love relationship between a Croatian unnamed female student and the Austrian student Ernst which takes place in Vienna. The unusual thing in this novel is the fact that in numerous sentences and passages the author uses a strange German language which is characterized by interference mistakes, or to be precise a Croatian-German language variation which more or less differs grammatically and lexically from standard German language. In the paper this consciously alienated language is being investigated concerning the influence of the Croatian mother tongue of the author, but also concerning common mistakes while learning German language. The paper also analyses the motivation of Ana Bilic for such in the context of immigrant literature unusual language use, which is also connected with the plot of the novel. Thus qualitative as well as quantitative methods of analysis are being used, whereby the former ones refer to the content and the latter ones to the frequency of interference mistakes in the book. The interference mistakes belong on one side to the fictional (text-internal) world and on the other side to the factual (text-external) level, because they reflect the plot of the book and establish on the level of content and language a connection between the first-person narrator and the author, who also had to learn German after her arrival to Vienna. As a result of this most interference mistakes appear in the first chapters of the novel, which reflects the first phase in German language learning of the female narrator. Further on in the novel the quantity of the mistakes decreases parallel to the rising foreign language abilities of the narrator, which holds true for the less frequent language acquisition and competence mistakes. The aim of the Ana Bilic is obviously to show by means of the plot and the language use the mechanisms and the process of foreign language acquisition, whereby she makes an innovative contribution to the contemporary German-speaking immigrant literature.

Keywords: immigrant literature, interference mistakes, acquisition mistakes, competence mistakes, foreign languages didactics

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Title: THE ROLE OF VISUAL VOCABULARY IN THE PROCESS OF LEARNING ITALIAN FOR SPECIFIC PURPOSE

Author: Mirella Pederzoli

Abstract: The use of visual material does not imply necessarily the comprehension of the message included in it. It is necessary to go deeper, identifying the meaning enclosed into an expression using a visual code. In a formative context this aspect is even more relevant because the usage of visual material is growing due to also the new technologies applied to education. Therefore, this article highlights the main characteristics of a visual material for second languages acquisition, that is the visual vocabulary. First of all, the topic will be introduced through a semiotic overview about the usage of pictures in learning, underlining the process through which the meaning is spread across visual material. Indeed, the investigation of meaning-making includes the study of sign processes – that is semiosis – like analogy, metaphor, symbolism, likeness, etc., all aspects that characterize a linguistic code and a visual code too. Then, a literature review focuses on the main studies concerning the teaching and learning of vocabulary in a second language, especially in the field of the French lexicography. Finally, considering the characteristics of the visual material from a semiotic perspective, the final paragraph provides an example of a visual vocabulary of Italian as second language. This vocabulary is thought for foreign workers in the field of tourism and hosting that need to learn Italian for specific purpose. Thus, considering the proficiency level of that type of learners (A2, according to the CEFR) and their limitation in terms of time spent for learning, the vocabulary represents an effective support material in the process of learning and retaining vocabulary and fixed expressions. Therefore, this article aims at contributing to the debate over the usage of visual material in the context of learning and teaching a second language, due to the fact that nowadays the society offers us a wide range of visual stimuli. Thus, as users or designers of visual material, we have to be aware of their evocative power and we have to be able to interpret them and not just to look at them in a passive way.

Keywords: picture; visual; Italian; learning; vocabulary; semiotics

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1st Issue – March 2014

Monday, February 24th, 2014

JLSP cover 2014

Full volume of The Journal of Languages for Specific Purposes (JLSP) – 1st Issue – March 2014

Title: SPOTLIGHTING ENGLISH PHRASAL VERBS

Author(s): Éva Kovács

Abstract: Phrasal verbs or multi-word verbs, such as call off, go into and run up against, etc. represent a very interesting and challenging aspect of the English language. In ELT there is a widespread view that familiarity with a wide range of phrasal verbs and the ability to use them appropriately in context are among the distinguishing marks of a native-like command of English. However, it is also generally recognised that these verb+particle combinations pose special difficulties for both learners and teachers of English partly because there are so many of them, partly because they have special semantic, syntactic and stylistic properties. Besides, quite many of them can be used as nouns, e.g. a hideaway, a stowaway and a write-off, etc. and adjectives, e.g. a broken-down car and a knockdown price, etc. What is more, again quite many of them have a single word equivalent of Romance origin, which, however, often differs from them in terms of style, collocation and meaning, e.g. blow up ~ explode, do away with ~ eliminate and put out ~ extinguish, etc. Furthermore, it is a misconception that phrasal verbs are mainly used in informal style and in spoken English. In fact, they can be found in many styles of writing, ranging from highly formal texts to slang, e.g. call forth vs. gobble up, etc. This paper sets out to explore the unique and complex nature of English verb+particle constructions in order to make them a more manageable part of the vocabulary of English.

Keywords: phrasal verbs; semantics; syntax; nominalisations; single-word synonyms; style;

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Title: A CONTRASTIVE ANALYSIS ON THE MEANING OF SOME GERMAN ADJECTIVES COMPARED TO MACEDONIAN

Author(s): Biljana Ivanovska

Abstract: This study is intended to serve as a guide for teachers of German who are teaching German as a foreign language (DaF-Deutsch als Fremdsprache), by making a contrast of the grammatical structures and the meaning of lexical items of both contemporary German and Macedonian language. This study is limited to the word class of adjectives only. By making the contrast between the two systems point-by-point, teachers can more readily see just those instances where dissimilarities and congruences occur between the two systems and where students of one, say Macedonians who wish to learn German, can more readily be made aware of what to look out for as they practice grammar in the target language. Firstly, the author presents the Macedonian word class of adjectives, then the German one, and in the next section makes a comparison between the meaning of the lexical items in both language systems followed by the summary and conclusion of the similarities and differences in both languages. The findings of this study will be important for teachers teaching German as a foreign language in Macedonia, as well as for the Macedonian students of German who study German as a foreign language (DaF) and for the teacher educators, too.

Keywords: adjectives; DaF; meaning; contrastive analysis

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Title: GENRE ANALYSIS IN TEACHING ENGLISH FOR PROFESSIONAL COMMUNICATION

Author(s): Klaudia Valdmanová

Abstract: During their studies of general English at secondary school students obtain knowledge of the forms and meaning of words used in everyday situations, knowledge of grammatical components and frequently occurring language functions. Then they enroll in university to study a profession. English for Professional Communication is usually a part of their curriculum. Within it, they need to acquire communicative competence enabling them to enter a discourse community of experts. In addition to learning the terminology used in a profession they have to acquire sociolingual and discourse competences as well including generic one. It is a challenge that English teachers face when they decide to enclose authentic genres into their teaching materials. This paper presents suggestions how written genres can be used in teaching English for nurses. Most of the discourse and genre analyses relate to face-to-face doctor-patient encounters and nurses´ computer-mediated communications. To my knowledge, less attention has been given to written genres of the nursing discourse. Therefore the paper presents the most important concepts of genre, explains the roles of genre in organizational communication and gives a brief description of the discourse community of nurses and ways it uses task-oriented and patient-oriented genres as mechanisms of interaction.It also explains the purpose of individual genres. In the process of creating materials for learning professional English one of the most important tasks is the selection of suitable texts as they should meet learners´ needs and represent texts used in practice. I consider a Nursing Care Plan for a key text. Therefore, I present a detailed analysis of its parts focused on their communicative functions, description of standardized lexis, grammar structures and broken grammar rules. I suggest a method how to teach the Nursing Care Plan genre in English lessons and present tasks leading to the acquisition of receptive and productive skills related to the use of this genre.I believe that the knowledge of genres can help students to make sense of the diverse types of communicative actions that are typical of the discourse community to which they will belong.

Keywords: Communicative competence; genres; genre analysis; discourse community of nurses; English for Professional Communication; English for nurses.

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Title: THE U.S. FOREIGN LANGUAGE DEFICIT AND LANGUAGES FOR SPECIFIC PURPOSES

Author(s): Kathleen Stein-Smith

Abstract: Within the framework of the U.S. foreign language deficit, the author addresses the case for Languages for Specific Purposes (LSP), and more specifically, Business Language Studies (BLS), through an examination of the relevant literature and building on her own recent doctoral research study on foreign language as a global competency within the U.S. undergraduate Global/International Studies major. Languages for Specific Purposes (LSP) is one way to effectively address the U.S. foreign language deficit, highlighting the opportunities that exist for young people with foreign language skills. The role of foreign language (and of the foreign language educator) in developing intercultural competence has been addressed primarily through the European literature.Implementation of the recommendations of 2007 Modern Language Association (MLA) report, Foreign Languages and Higher Education: New Structures for a Changed World, would increase the appeal of foreign language learning to the broader constituency of learners driven by career and professional goals. It is important for foreign language educators in the US to reach out and support the needs of all prospective foreign learners, and especially of those driven by career and professional goals, through a broad range of LSP and BLS programs.It is interesting to note that the collapse in U.S .foreign language enrollment, which occurred in the 1970s and 1980s and has never re-bounded in proportion to the impact of globalization, may be about to be reversed, based on the recent article by William P Rivers et al. on the level of ‘grass roots’ support for foreign language in the U.S.Lastly, the importance specifically of Europe and of European languages is stressed, as the EU is the world’s largest economy, and Europe is the largest trading partner of the U.S. In addition, Europe plays a major role on the world stage, and European culture and lifestyle have global appeal.

Keywords: foreign language deficit; business language studies; languages for specific purposes; cultural intelligence; intercultural competence

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Title: COMMUNICATING THE STEREOTYPE OF “OTHERNESS” IN EUROPEAN ADVERTISING: CULTURAL AND NATIONAL “FAKE MULTICULTURALISM”

Author(s): Ioana Mudure-Iacob

Abstract: In its quest for the destination of an ‘all-encompassing’ communication, European advertising builds an image of complexity and oppositions. Constructed as a mingling of cultural values, intensive consumerism and creative touches, the story of advertising is a never-ending analysis of nowadays globalized societies. Moreover, its ramifying story of acceptance, assimilation, rejection and stereotypy brought advertising at a position in which the debate over intercultural representation and consumer behavior is crucial. Consequently, the main question that arises is: in the realm of the thirsty and goods-addict consumers, what type of discourse should advertising in Europe use, so as to emphasize pluralism and still maintain culturally personalized approaches. It is, therefore, the purpose of this paper to explore and analyze the congruencies and disparities between advertising and its social, cultural and economic repositories, on the background of Europe’s image. In this respect, some questions can be formulated: How does advertising pertain to organizing its communication with the overly globalized consumer markets? Is the stereotypical label hereby inserted in such a communicational direction with consumers, and if so, what are the features of an “addressing otherness” discourse with respect to ad typology? Another aim of the current paper is to evoke the level at which European advertising fails to stick to the intercultural framework of reference, through a presentation of the stereotypes of “otherness” and the implied “fake multiculturalism.” The idea behind this assumption is that, while representing ethnic groups differently or by use of a derogatory mechanism, the message cannot be that of Europeanness. Moreover, the focus on linguistic choice of advertising vocabulary is linked to the issue of “linguistic fetishism” and, more importantly, it shows that the variety of linguistic panel in Europe sometimes prevents consumers from decoding the message of advertising. The sphere of this domain allowed for a new analytical introspection in the appearance of this marketing mix, which led to further wanderings in the realm of an advertising that is both plural and rigid. Such an economic force, combined with intercultural representation, serves as an effective means of changing the fairytale of consumerism abuse into a fairly-oriented European happy-end story of multicultural consumers in the land of promising advertising.

Keywords: communication in advertising; identity; linguistic fetishism; discourse; otherness.

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Title: ENHANCING INTERCULTURAL COMPETENCE THROUGH PROFESSIONAL COMMUNICATION IN FOREIGN LANGUAGES

Author(s): Anna Horňáková

Abstract: Nowadays, contacts between people from diverse cultural backgrounds are becoming more frequent and much closer. Highly developed skills in intercultural communication have a significant bearing on the quality of relationships between people from different cultures and nationalities. A recent rapid development in multicultural relationships therefore puts new demands also on university graduates. They need to be adequately prepared for new social situations and future job opportunities in their home country and also abroad. Achievement of communication competence is the principal objective in foreign language teaching and therefore intercultural competence is incorporated into the university curriculum. The findings of our survey Implementation of Modern Technologies in Professional Language Teaching (a part of a research project funded by the Kultúrna a edukačná grantová agentúra (KEGA) of the Slovak Ministry of Education, no. 049PU4/2012) highlighted the importance of professional communication teaching and emphasized intercultural competence as one of the key priorities in the university education. We used a specially designed questionnaire to find out if our respondents (students in the Faculty of Health Sciences, the University of Prešov, Slovakia) are sufficiently prepared to provide a proper care to clients/patients from different cultures. Our study showed that the language most used in professional practice was English, and that most respondents did not have any difficulty in communication with clients from different cultures. Sixty percent of the respondents also used non-verbal communication if verbal communication failed, and respected the cultural differences and individuality of patients; a small number of the respondents did not respect these factors. However, our findings also showed that there are still some language barriers between future healthcare professionals and clients/patients from diverse cultures, and that more practice in professional communication has to become an essential part of the foreign language teaching. It is also necessary to include more intercultural aspects into the foreign language teaching for healthcare professionals to be able to respect the individuality of people from different cultures. Hence, the professional language teaching at universities needs to place a greater emphasis on students’ knowledge of different cultures in order to enhance their intercultural competence. Our study provides some recommendations for improving interactions between future healthcare professionals and clients/patients from different cultures.

Keywords: healthcare professionals; intercultural competence, professional communication in foreign languages; education

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Title: THE ROLE OF FOREIGN LANGUAGE TEACHERS IN DEVELOPING STUDENTS’ INTERCULTURAL COMMUNICATION SKILLS

Author(s): Andrea Hamburg

Abstract: By now it is well-known that the role of modern education is to equip students with several types of competences necessary for their future personal and professional life. One of these competences, namely communication skills, has a component whose development is, according to the author’s opinion, mainly in charge of foreign language teachers. It is their role to create the shift from the ethnocentric level of students’ attitude towards cultural issues to the ethnorelativistic stage that is to make their students aware of and accept cultural differences and to help them acquire skills necessary for intercultural encounters. The two main topics present study is focusing on are: to what extent it is necessary to intervene in this respect and which are the ways teachers can develop intercultural sensitivity and competence.

The results of a questionnaire applied to more than 200 students of the University of Oradea, Romania – studying Economics, Medicine and Law – confirmed the author’s hypothesis that in spite of the extended international relations and travel opportunities Romanian students are not really aware of cultural diversity and its overwhelming impact upon people’s behaviour, reactions and way of thinking.

To change this situation, teachers, especially foreign language teachers may resort to techniques and methods like simulation games on cultural differences (Barnga, Ecotonos, BaFá BaFá, Randömia Balloon Factory etc.) that intercultural communication trainers use successfully in their seminars to make participants aware of cultural diversity and help them manage real life situations involving international encounters and/or appeal to the opportunities offered by information and communication technologies and the internet, through youtube and different socialization platforms.

Keywords: communication skills; intercultural communication competence; cultural differences; foreign language teaching; simulation games; intercultural encounters

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Title: ATTITUDES TOWARDS LEARNING ENGLISH: A STUDY OF MOTIVATION AND RESPONSIBILITY AS AIDS TO HUMAN RESOURCES

Author(s): Monica-Ariana Sim, Anamaria-Mirabela Pop

Abstract: The paper presents the results of a survey carried out at the Faculty of Economic Sciences, University of Oradea, in order to identify attitudes, beliefs, motivation and self-responsibility among students when it comes to learning the English language. The main issue investigated was motivation set at the basis of the learning process together with students’ attitudes regarding the use of English in the Romanian social and educational context, as well as the use of the English language in general. A valid questionnaire was designed and tried to a convenient sample of students; the results of the study are discussed in terms of the principal components that were established including attitude towards motivation, self-responsibility, and language learning approaches. Research and experience show that English is of utmost importance in the academic and future professional lives of students majoring in economics. Therefore, this paper provides some theoretical aspects of motivation, beliefs and responsibility in the context of second language acquisition.Among the important achievements of the study we should mention the observations of students’ behaviour concerning responsibility. It appears that most students are not ready to take complete responsibility for learning. They are either afraid of the teacher, or feel embarrassed, and are ashamed to openly utter their ideas. Thus, teamwork and pair-work facilitate the effective learning of the foreign language and encourage students’ collaboration. The teacher is not the central actor, the controller anymore; s/he becomes the facilitator and source of knowledge. It is important for the teacher to know the basic needs of his/her students and cater for these according to level of their importance, to be aware of the reasons that propel students towards learning, improving or just surviving English as a foreign language.

Keywords: human resources; motivation; responsibility.

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Title: HUNSRIK LËRNE ‘HUNSRÜCKISCH LERNEN’. DIALEKTUNTERRICHT IN DER DEUTSCHEN SPRACHINSEL SÜDBRASILIENS/ HUNSRIK LËRNE ‘LEARNING HUNSRÜCKISCH’. TEACHING THE DIALECT IN A SOUTH BRASILIAN LANGUAGE COMMUNITY

Author(s): Mateusz Maselko, Solange Maria Hamester Johann, Mabel Dewes

Abstract: The didactic description of the language islands has been very little noticed in research so far. The literature concerning the German didactics in that field must be seen as poor. Especially the speakers of German as a minority language outside of Europe, as the Hunsrik (Hunsrückisch) in Southern Brazil, get hardly recognized. The main focus of this article lies on this dialect enclave. The theoretic perspectives as well as the empiric ones, try to get to the bottom of the major aspects of teaching methodologies of minority languages. The aim of this paper is to portray the sociolinguistic context of the Hunsrik, focalizing on its usage amongst childrengrowing up in a bilingual environment. Secondly it pictures possibilities how German as a dialectal minority language can be integrated in school. For this purpose the experiences of Project “Hunsrik” from Santa Maria do Herval were taken into account. Before the detailed description of the situation of Hunsrik in an educational environment, the introducing chapters give a short overview of this German variety. Further on the reasons for the decrease of competence and frequency of usage of the dialect in German minorities are discussed, considering especially the situation of language islands overseas. The aspect of bilingualism, which is considered to be a constitutional part of members of a linguistic enclave, is taken into account. The third chapter discusses the advantages of language courses for members of German dialect language islands. The purpose and the content of teaching the mother tongue of members of language islands are highlighted in this chapter. The aims of teaching the first language in an educational environment are the propagation of the variety, the empowerment of minorities and the transmission of cultural identity of linguistic enclaves and of their original homeland. The following chapter presents the materials that were published by the team “Hunsrik” so far. They can be seen as an important contribution to the propagation of that variety and the empowerment of its speakers.

Keywords: German language island in Southern Brazil; Hunsrik (Hunsrückisch); dialect teaching; educational material; language and culture cultivation; bilingualism

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Title: ILLUSTRIERENDE UND PERSÖNLICHKEITSENTWICKELNDE FUNKTIONEN VON BILDERN IM DAF-UNTERRICHT / PICTURES AS ILLUSTRATION AND A MEANS FOR PERSONALITY DEVELOPMENT IN TEACHING GERMAN AS A FOREIGN LANGUAGE

Author(s): Andrea Taczman

Abstract: The following article focuses on pictures and their functions in teaching German as a Foreign Language. The questions of the article are based on two approaches, namely on the cognitive turn and the communicative turn. In spite of the fact that they led to certain developments, they had also some negative consequences. The cognitive turn focuses less on individuals in foreign language teaching and the communicative turn focuses on intellectually simpler learning materials. The major question of the article is how these deficits can be reduced. The article considers the conscious application of pictures to be a potential way of overcoming the shortages. Several German as a Foreign Language coursebooks will be analysed from the following points of view: What aims is the application of pictures based on? To what extent do coursebooks try to integrate the emotional and intellectual dimensions of the teaching and learning process? Among different functions of pictures, the function of pictures for personality development will be especially highlighted because secondary secondary school students are in a period in which they need a certain kind of value based orientation. The reason for choosing pictures as a possible way of achieving these aims is that today’s students are surrounded by pictures everywhere. Day by day they come across different pictures which obviously have an effect on them. Foreign language teaching is supposed to consider these facts and intensify the reflection on the functions of pictures. New approaches need to be developed because pictures can function not only as illustration but they can also contribute to students’ intellectual and emotional enrichment. With the help of the coursebook analysis, the article intends to give an answer to the question whether the chosen coursebooks use pictures’ full potential they offer for personality development. The article proposes the hypothesis that the chosen German as a Foreign Language coursebooks have deficiencies in exhausting all of the potential offered by pictures because they disregard pedagogical aims. The article will prove this hypothesis because the majority of the pictures is used for illustrative or semantic purposes but not for supporting students’ personality development. Through a presentation of theoretical guidelines and practical suggestions the article intends to show that a combination of texts and pictures can reduce the deficits caused by the cognitive and communicative turn.

Keywords: educational and pedagogical aims; cognitive turn; communicative turn; pictures; personality development.

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